The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies (KSJCS)
[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 5, pp.46-80
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Oct 2020
Received 10 Aug 2020 Revised 28 Sep 2020 Accepted 05 Oct 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.5.002

소통 전략으로서 미러링의 효과 : 관점 수용과 외집단에 대한 부정적 감정을 중심으로

안재경** ; 민영***
**미국 펜실베이니아대학교 커뮤니케이션대학원 박사과정 chloeastella@gmail.com
***고려대학교 미디어학과 교수 ymin@korea.ac.kr
Mirroring as a communicative strategy : The effects of Mirroring on perspective-taking and negative feelings toward outgroups
Jae-Kyung Ahn** ; Young Min***
**Doctoral Student, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania chloeastella@gmail.com
***Professor, School of Media and Communication, Korea University, corresponding author ymin@korea.ac.kr

초록

최근 페미니즘 담론에서 대항발화 전략으로 주목받은 미러링은 타인의 행위를 그대로 비추어 따라 하되 타인(이 속한 집단)을 비난하는 어휘를 덧붙이는 말하기 방식이다. 그러나 미러링에 대한 개념적 정의는 여전히 모호하며 미러링의 독립적인 효과에 대한 연구 역시 부족하다. 이 연구는 미러링을 심리치료극의 ‘거울기법’과 ‘무례한 말하기’가 교차하는 ‘무례한 거울기법’으로 개념화하여, 거울기법과 미러링(무례한 거울기법) 말하기가 관점 수용, 젠더 문제에 관한 관심, 여성의 집합적 효능감, 그리고 성별 외집단을 향한 부정적 감정에 미치는 효과를 알아보았다. 여성 140명과 남성 140명을 대상으로 한 실험 결과, 거울기법과 미러링은 (각각 반론하기와 무례하지 않은 거울기법에 비해) 남성의 관점 수용과 여성의 집합적 효능감에 유의미한 변화를 가져오지 못했다. 한편 거울기법 말하기는 젠더 문제에 관한 관심을 증가시켰는데, 이 효과는 남성 청자에서만 유의미하게 나타났다. 특히 남성 집단에서, 무례한 거울기법보다 무례하지 않은 거울기법이 젠더 문제에 대한 관심을 높이는 데 더 효과적이었다. 마지막으로, 미러링에 노출되었을 때 여성 전체에 대한 남성의 부정적 감정은 증가하지 않았으나, 페미니스트에 대한 부정적 감정은 증가하였다. 미러링을 통해 추구하려는 가치와 관찰된 효과 사이의 차이를 확인하며 그 함의를 논의하였다.

Abstract

‘Mirroring’ has recently drawn attention in South Korea as an uncivil feminist strategy in the form of online counterspeech. It often refers to a communicative strategy that mimics some of the behaviors or expressions of an outgroup, usually adding remarks disparaging the outgroup. Some scholars attend to how Mirroring has contributed to invigorating the online feminist movement, while other critics have focused on Mirroring’s extremity or the negative repercussions it brought in the online sphere. These conflicting views surrounding the role of Mirroring represent the amount of public attention Mirroring has generated. However, the conceptual definition of Mirroring still remains equivocal, which thereby leads to a lack of empirical research on its independent effects. To fill this gap, we conceptualized Mirroring as a communicative strategy combining mirroring techniques (often used in psychotherapy) and incivility. Here, the mirroring technique refers to one of the psychotherapeutic approaches that makes a protagonist face directly with someone else who imitates her or his role. What makes Mirroring unique is that it presents mirroring techniques in a verbal format and intentionally combines them with uncivil (often insulting) remarks. To examine the possible consequences that Mirroring speeches could have on both women and men, we explored how Mirroring messages affect the level of perspective-taking, interest in gender issues, women’s collective efficacy, and negative feelings toward gender outgroups. Our results from an online survey experiment (N = 280) showed that female and male participants (n =140, respectively) responded in significantly different ways to the administered Mirroring messages. Mirroring did not induce a significant change in men’s perspective-taking or improve women's perceived collective efficacy. Exposure to mirroring techniques led to an increase in men’s interest in various gender issues, especially when the messages were presented in a relatively polite manner. Furthermore, exposure to a Mirroring message did not increase men’s negative feelings toward women in general although it triggered their negative emotions toward feminist groups. On the other hand, female participants did not show a higher level of interest in gender issues or express more negative feelings toward men when exposed to a Mirroring speech. Based on some conceptual clarification, this study attempted to empirically shed light on how Mirroring could or could not function as a successful communicative strategy between different gender groups. Beyond questions such as whether Mirroring is good or bad for the public or whether Mirroring is a normatively desirable strategy, the implications of this study were discussed in terms of the discrepancies between the claimed value of Mirroring and the observed effects.

Keywords:

Mirroring, Mirroring technique, Incivility, Perspective-taking, Feminism

키워드:

미러링, 거울기법, 무례한 표현, 관점 수용, 페미니즘

Acknowledgments

This study is based on the master’s thesis of the first author(이 논문은 주저자의 고려대학교 일반대학원 미디어학과 석사학위논문을 토대로 재구성됐음).

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