The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies (KSJCS)
[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 4, pp.148-184
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2021
Received 07 Apr 2021 Accepted 16 Jul 2021 Revised 27 Jul 2021

우리가 침묵하는 이유 : 소셜미디어 여론에서 나타나는 침묵의 종류와 사회심리적 영향요인 연구

윤수진** ; 최진호*** ; 손동영****
**한양대학교 미디어커뮤니케이션학과 박사과정 수료
***한국언론진흥재단 미디어연구센터 선임연구위원
****한양대학교 미디어커뮤니케이션학과 교수
Why We Remain Silent : Socio-psychological factors influencing different types of silence in social media
Sujin Yoon** ; Jinho Choi*** ; Dongyoung Sohn****
**Doctoral Candidate, Department of Media & Communication, Hanyang University, first author
***Senior Researcher, Media Research Center, Korea Press Foundation
****Professor, Department of Media & Communication, Hanyang University, corresponding author


이 연구는 소셜미디어 여론에서 나타나는 침묵의 원인에 따라 체념적, 방어적, 친사회적 침묵으로 세분하고 이에 영향을 미치는 커뮤니케이션 변인과 개인의 인지적 특성을 탐구한다. 먼저 소셜미디어 환경에서 체념적, 방어적 침묵의 정도는 커뮤니케이션에 대한 두려움이 클수록 높아지는 것으로 나타났다. 반면 친사회적 침묵은 여론기후 지각과 커뮤니케이션 두려움의 상호작용에 따라 달라졌다 ― 자신이 소수에 속한다고 인식하는 경우에는 커뮤니케이션 두려움이 클 때 친사회적 침묵의 정도가 높게 나타난 반면, 다수에 속한다고 지각하는 경우에는 반대로 커뮤니케이션 두려움이 적을 때 친사회적 침묵이 높아지는 패턴이 발견됐다. 이러한 패턴은 개인의 자기통제 수준과도 유사한 관련을 보였는데, 자신의 의견이 소수에 속한다고 지각하는 사람은 자기통제가 강할 때, 다수에 속한다고 인식하는 사람은 반대로 자기통제가 약할 때 친사회적 침묵의 정도가 높았다. 같은 맥락에서 스스로를 다수로 지각하는 경우 집단정체성이 강할 때 자신과 내집단 보호를 위한 방어적 침묵이 높게 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과는 개인의 사회심리적 특성과 여론기후 상황에 대한 인식에 따라 침묵의 이유가 달라질 수 있다는 사실을 보여주는데, 침묵의 바탕에 놓인 상이한 이유는 이후 다양한 양상의 여론변화로 이어지는 단초가 될 수 있다는 점에서 주목할 필요가 있다.


The spiral of silence phenomenon has often been attributed to the effects of mass media. The emergence of networked environments, such as social media, however, makes the spiraling dynamics far more complex and unpredictable than before. While being silent was previously taken as a sign of compliance resulting from the fear of social isolation, social media users may feel reluctant to speak out or may intentionally choose to remain silent for various reasons and purposes. Particularly in social media, individuals may not want to express their opinions for different reasons, such as lurking (i.e., read messages and others’ post, but seldom write themselves) or as an implicit expression of disagreement. This suggests that silence may not be attributed to a single psychological motive or reason, but arises from a mixture of motivational and situational influences in the social media environment. The aim of this study is to re-illuminate the concept of silence as a conscious choice that individuals make in a given situation, by examining the factors that influence three different types of silence—namely acquiescent, defensive, and prosocial silence—in the context of public opinion processes in social media. An online survey was administered to selected Facebook users and a MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was carried out to analyze the data obtained. First, the degrees of acquiescent and defensive silence in the social media environment were found to increase when the level of communication apprehension was higher, while the degree of prosocial silence varied depending on the interaction between communication apprehension and perceived opinion climate. When communication apprehension was lower, the degree of prosocial silence turned out higher among people in the majority. When communication apprehension was higher, on the contrary, prosocial silence went up among those in the minority. Similar patterns were also found in relation to self-control—the degree of prosocial silence went up when people with higher self-control were in the minority and those with lower self-control in the majority. Likewise, group identity was found to moderate the effects of perceived opinion climates on the degree of defensive silence. Overall, the results show that there exist different types of silence with various underlying reasons, which are in conjunction with diverse socio-psychological, situational, and contextual factors related to public opinion processes. The presence of different types of silence can make the unfolding of public opinion more dynamic and unpredictable, which requires a systematic attempt to identify them.


social media, silence, perceived opinion climate, communication apprehension, cognitive characteristics


소셜미디어, 침묵, 여론기후 지각, 커뮤니케이션 심리, 인지적 특성


This work was derived from the master’s thesis of the first author and supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT: Ministry of Science and ICT) (No.2018R1A5A7059549). (이 논문은 제1저자의 한양대학교 석사학위논문을 토대로 재구성 및 발전된 연구이며, 2018년도 정부(과학기술정보통신부)의 재원으로 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임)


  • Acaray, A., & Akturan, A. (2015). The relationship between organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational silence. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences207, 472-482. []
  • Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193(5), 31-35. []
  • boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230. []
  • Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. Academic Press.
  • Choi, H., Lee, Z., & Kim, J. (2009). An empirical study on the effect of technical and social anonymity on the self-control behavior. Journal of Internet Computing and Services, 10(1), 63-74.
  • Choi, J.-H., Park, J.-W., & Sohn, D. (2017). Social media and news perception: The influence of cognitive social networks on news credibility perception and sharing intention. Korean Journal of Broadcasting and Telecommunication Studies, 31(1), 184-219.
  • Choi, S. G., & Ji, S. G. (2012). A study on the Impact of Supervisor’s Behavior on the Psychological Safety, Silence, and ProSocial Voice. Journal of Organization and Management, 36(4), 99-123.
  • Crandall, H. M., & Ayres, J. (2002). Communication Apprehension and the Spiral of Silence. Journal of the Northwest Communication Association, 31, 27-39.
  • Dahlstrom, M. F. (2012). The persuasive influence of narrative causality: Psychological mechanism, strength in overcoming resistance, and persistence over time. Media Psychology, 15(3), 303–326. []
  • DeBono, A., Shmueli, D., & Muraven, M. (2011). Rude and inappropriate: The role of self-control in following social norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(1), 136-146. []
  • Dillard, J. P., & Shen, L. (2005). On the nature of reactance and its role in persuasive health communication. Communication Monographs, 72(2), 144–168. []
  • Donnell, A. J., Thomas, A., & Buboltz Jr, W. C. (2001). Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(5), 679-687. []
  • Du, J., van Koningsbruggen, G. M., & Kerkhof, P. (2018). A brief measure of social media self-control failure. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 68-75. []
  • Eum, S.-Y. (2005). Process of public opinion formation through the on-line discussion. Information & communications policy, 17(22), 1-24.
  • Forsyth, D. (1990). Group dynamics. Brooks/Cole.
  • Fox, J., & Holt, L. F. (2018). Fear of isolation and perceived affordances: The spiral of silence on social networking sites regarding police discrimination. Mass Communication and Society, 21(5), 533-554. []
  • Fox, J., & Warber, K. M. (2015). Queer identity management and political self-expression on social networking sites: A co-cultural approach to the spiral of silence. Journal of Communication, 65(1), 79-100. []
  • Gearhart, S., & Zhang, W. (2014). Gay bullying and online opinion expression: Testing spiral of silence in the social media environment. Social science computer review32(1), 18-36. []
  • Gearhart, S., & Zhang, W. (2015). “Was it something I said?” “No, it was something you posted!” A study of the spiral of silence theory in social media contexts. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking18(4), 208-213. []
  • Gearhart, S., & Zhang, W. (2018). Same spiral, different day? Testing the spiral of silence across issue types. Communication Research, 45(1), 34-54. []
  • Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L., & Zheng, P. (2014). Social media, political expression, and political participation: Panel analysis of lagged and concurrent relationships. Journal of communication64(4), 612-634. []
  • Glynn, C., & Park, E. (1997). Reference groups, opinion intensity, and public opinion expression. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 9, 213-232. []
  • Goldsmith, R. E., Clark, R. A., & Lafferty, B. A. (2005). Tendency to conform: A new measure and its relationship to psychological reactance. Psychological Reports, 96, 591-594. []
  • Greene, S. (1999). Understanding party identification: A social identity approach. Political Psychology, 20(2), 393-403. []
  • Han, H.-K. (2003). The perception of public opinion in internet: The comparative analysis of tendency to perceive a false consensus between Digitalchosun visitors and Ohmynews visitors. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 47(4), 5-33.
  • Han, J., & Hur, G.-H. (2004). Construction and validation of mobile phone addiction scale. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 48(6), 138-165.
  • Hayes, A. F., Matthes, J., & Eveland Jr, W. P. (2013). Stimulating the quasi-stastical organ: Fear of social isolation motivates the quest for knowledge of the opinion climate. Communication Research, 40(4), 439-462. []
  • Hayne, S. C., & Rice, R. E. (1997). Attribution accuracy when using anonymity in group support systems. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies47(3), 429-452. []
  • Heiss, R. (2021). The affective foundation of political opinion expression on social media: A panel analysis. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 33(1), 57-75. []
  • Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. R. (2000). In defense of self-control. Theoretical Criminology, 4(1), 55–69. []
  • Ho, S. S., & McLeod, D. M. (2008). Social-psychological influences on opinion expression in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 35(2), 190-207. []
  • Hoffmann, C. P., & Lutz, C. (2017, July). Spiral of silence 2.0: Political self-censorship among young Facebook users. Paper Presented at the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society, Toronto, Canada. []
  • Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. Routledge.
  • Jo, A.-R., & Yoo, T.-Y. (2014). The mediating effect of silence motivation on the relationships among employee silence behavior, perceived supervisor support, and perceived procedural justice. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(2), 291-315. []
  • Katz, E. (1983). Publicity and pluralistic ignorance: Notes on “the spiral of silence”. In Wartella, E., Whitney, D. C., & Windahl, S. (Eds.), Mass communication review yearbook (Vol. 4) (pp. 89-99). Sage.
  • Katz, E., & Fialkoff, Y. (2017). Six concepts in search of retirement. Annals of the International Communication Association, 41(1), 86-91. []
  • Kennedy, C., Blumenthal, M., Clement, S., Clinton, J. D., Durand, C., Franklin, C., McGeeney, K., Miringoff, L., Olson, K., Rivers, D., Saad, L., Witt, G. E., & Wlezien, C. (2018). An evaluation of the 2016 election polls in the United States. Public Opinion Quarterly82(1), 1-33. []
  • Kiewitz, C., Restubog, S. L. D., Shoss, M. K., Garcia, P. R. J. M., & Tang, R. L. (2016). Suffering in silence: Investigating the role of fear in the relationship between abusive supervision and defensive silence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(5), 731–742. []
  • Kim, H. S., & Lee, H. O. (2012). A study on psychological reactance in adolescent anti-smoking public service advertising campaign. The Korean Journal of Advertising and Public Relations, 14(3), 5-32.
  • Kim, J. H., & Kim, J. A. (2011). The influence of cognitive dissonance by hypocrisy paradigm on persuasion: On attitude and behavior for CSR corporation. Advertising Research, (89), 205-228.
  • Kirk, J. M., & Logue, A. W. (1996). Self-control in adult humans: Effects of counting and timing. Learning and Motivation, 27(1), 1–20. []
  • Kushin, M. J., Yamamoto, M., & Dalisay, F. (2019). Societal majority, Facebook, and the spiral of silence in the 2016 US presidential election. Social Media+ Society5(2), 1-11. []
  • Lee, M. R., Kang, H. C., & Lee, S. W. (2011). The effect of the limited verification of identity on the formation of reply culture: Focused on the degree of self-control between general reply service and social reply service. Journal of Cybercommunication Academic Society, 28(3), 5-42.
  • Lee, W., Detenber, B. H., Willnat, L., Aday, S., & Graf, J. (2004). A cross-cultural test of the spiral of silence theory in Singapore and the United States. Asian Journal of Communication, 14, 205-226. []
  • Liu, X., & Fahmy, S. (2011). Exploring the spiral of silence in the virtual world: Individuals’ willingness to express personal opinions in online versus offline settings. Journal of Media & Communication Studies. 3(2), 45-57.
  • Louge, A. W. (1995). Self-control: Waiting until tomorrow for what you want today. Prentice Hall.
  • Louis, K., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K., Anderson, S., Michlin, M., & Mascall, B. (2010). Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning. Wallace Foundation.
  • Maass, A., & Clark, R. D. (1986). Conversion theory and simultaneous majority/minority influence: Can reactance offer an alternative explanation?. European Journal of Social Psychology, 16(3), 305-309. []
  • Matthes, J. (2015). Observing the “spiral” in the spiral of silence. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 27, 155-176. []
  • Matthes, J., Knoll, J., & von Sikorski, C. (2018). The “spiral of silence” revisited: A meta-analysis on the relationship between perceptions of opinion support and political opinion expression. Communication Research45(1), 3-33. []
  • McCroskey, J. C. (1983, Feb). Cross-situational consistency of the PRCA: Another view. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Western Speech Communication Association, Albuquerque, NM, United States.
  • McCroskey, J. C., Beatty, M. J., Kearney, P., & Plax, T. G. (1985). The content validity of the PRCA-24 as a measure of communication apprehension across communication contexts. Communication Quarterly, 33(3), 165-173. []
  • McCroskey, J. C., Daly, J. A., & Sorensen, G. (1976). Personality correlates of communication apprehension: A research note. Human Communication Research, 2(4), 376–380. []
  • McDevitt, M., Kiousis, S., & Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2003). Spiral of moderation: Opinion expression in computer-mediated discussion. International Journal of Public Opinion Research15(4), 454-470. []
  • Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management review25(4), 706-725. []
  • Moscovici, S. (1980). Towards a theory of conversion behavior. In L, Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 13) (pp. 209-239). Academic Press. []
  • Moy, P., Domke, D., & Stamm, K. (2001). The spiral of silence and public opinion on affirmative action. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(1), 7–25. []
  • Na, E.-Y., & Song, C.-H. (2006). Children’s media involvement: Influence of self-control and communication with mothers. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 50(2), 116-147.
  • Neubaum, G., & Krämer, N. C. (2018). What do we fear? Expected sanctions for expressing minority opinions in offline and online communication. Communication Research45(2), 139-164. []
  • Neuwirth, K., & Frederick, E. (2004). Peer and social influence on opinion expression: Combining the theories of planned behavior and the spiral of silence. Communication Research31(6), 669-703. []
  • Neuwirth, K., Frederick, E., & Mayo, C. (2007). The spiral of silence and fear of isolation. Journal of Communication, 57(3), 450–468. []
  • Neuwirth, L. (2000). Testing the spiral of silence model: The case of Mexico. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 12, 138-159. []
  • Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43-51. []
  • Pang, N., Ho, S. S., Zhang, A. M., Ko, J. S., Low, W. X., & Tan, K. S. (2016). Can spiral of silence and civility predict click speech on Facebook?. Computers in Human Behavior64, 898-905. []
  • Park, Y., & Lee, C. (2013). Political opinion expression in the non-political online community: A search for the explanatory variables. Journal of Cybercommunication Academic Society, 30(2), 73-109.
  • Pinder, C. C., & Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in personnel and human resources management20, 331-369. []
  • Quick, B. L., & Stephenson, M. T. (2007). Further evidence that psychological reactance can be modeled as a combination of anger and negative cognitions. Communication Research, 34(3), 255–276. []
  • Ragsdale, J. D. (1976). Relationships between hesitation phenomena, anxiety, and self-control in a normal communication situation. Language and Speech, 19(3), 257-265. []
  • Rains, S. A. (2013). The nature of psychological reactance revisited: A meta-analytic review. Human Communication Research, 39(1), 47-73. []
  • Reinecke, L., & Hofmann, W. (2016). Slacking off or winding down?: An experience sampling study on the drivers and consequences of media use for recovery versus procrastination. Human Communication Research, 42(3), 441-461. []
  • Rhee, J., Dedahanov, A., & Lee, D. (2014). Relationships among power distance, collectivism, punishment, and acquiescent, defensive, or prosocial silence. Social Behavior and Personality, 42(5), 705-720. []
  • Roh, J.-K., & Min, Y. (2012). Effects of politically motivated selective exposure on attitude polarization: A study of non-political online community users. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 56(2), 226-248.
  • Scheufele, D. (1999). Deliberation or dispute?: An exploratory study examining dimensions of public opinion expression, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 2, 25-58. []
  • Scheufele, D. A. (2008). Spiral of silence theory. In W. Donsbach, & M. W. Traugott (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of public opinion research (pp. 175-183). Sage. []
  • Scheufele, D. A., Shanahan, J., & Lee, E. (2001). Real talk: Manipulating the dependent variable in spiral of silence research. Communication research28(3), 304-324. []
  • Scheufle, D. A., & Moy, P. (2000). Twenty-five years of the spiral of silence: A conceptual review and empirical outlook. International journal of public opinion research12(1), 3-28. []
  • Shim, K. & Oh, S. (2018). Who creates the Bandwagon? The dynamics of fear of isolation, opinion congruency and anonymity-preference on social media in the 2017 South Korean presidential election. Computers in Human Behavior, 86, 181-189. []
  • Shoemaker, P. J., Breen, M., & Stamper, M. (2000). Fear of isolation: Testing an assumption from the spiral of silence. Irish Communication Review, 8, 65–67.
  • Sohn, D. (2019). Spiral of silence in the social media era: A simulation approach to the interplay between social networks and mass media. Communication Research. Advance Online Publication. []
  • Sohn, D., & Choi, Y. (2020, May). Structural inertia to social media silence: A multilevel analysis of the network topology effects on participation disparity in Facebook. Presented at the annual conference of the International Communication Association, Gold Coast, Australia.
  • Sohn, D., & Geidner, N. (2016). Collective dynamics of the spiral of silence: The role of ego network size. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 28(1), 25-45. []
  • Tajfel, H. E. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Academic Press.
  • Turner, J. C., Brown, R, J., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Social comparison and group interest in ingroup favouritism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 9(2), 187-204. []
  • Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of management studies40(6), 1359-1392. []
  • Velasquez, A., Montgomery, G., & Hall, J. A. (2019). Ethnic minorities’ social media political use: How ingroup identification, selective exposure, and collective efficacy shape social media political expression. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication24(4), 147-164. []
  • Wilcox, K., & Stephen, A. T. (2013). Are close friends the enemy? Online social networks, self-esteem, and self-control. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(1), 90-103. []
  • Willnat, L., Lee, W., & Detenber, B. H. (2002). Individual-level predictors of public outspokenness: A test of the spiral of silence theory in Singapore. International Journal of Public Opinion Research14(4), 391-412. []
  • Winter, S., & Neubaum, G. (2016). Examining characteristics of opinion leaders in social media: A motivational approach. Social Media+ Society2(3), 1-12. []
  • Woo, H.-J. (2007). A study on the influence of mobile phone users’ self-traits on mobile phone addiction: Focusing on self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-control. Korean Journal of Broadcasting and Telecommunication Studies, 21(2), 391-427.
  • Yin, H., Cui, B., Chen, L., Hu, Z., & Huang, Z. (2014, June). A temporal context-aware model for user behavior modeling in social media systems. Paper presented at the 2014 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data, New York, United States. []
  • Zerback, T., & Fawzi, N. (2017). Can online exemplars trigger a spiral of silence?: Examining the effects of exemplar opinions on perceptions of public opinion and speaking out. New Media & Society19(7), 1034-1051. []



  • 김재휘·김정애 (2011). 위선유도에 의한 인지부조화의 설득 효과: CSR기업에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향. <광고연구>, 통권 89호, 205-228.
  • 김현숙·이현우 (2012). 금연을 위한 공익광고 캠페인에 있어서 청소년 수용자의 심리적 저항에 대한 연구. <한국광고홍보학보>, 14권 3호, 5-32.
  • 나은영·송종현 (2006). 어린이의 인터넷·컴퓨터게임 몰입에 미치는 자기통제성의 매개 역할과 어머니의 개방적 커뮤니케이션의 영향. <한국언론학보>, 50권 2호, 116-147.
  • 노정규·민영 (2012). 정치 정보에 대한 선택적 노출이 태도 극화에 미치는 효과: 비정치적 온라인 커뮤니티 이용자들을 대상으로. <한국언론학보>, 56권 2호, 226-248.
  • 박영득·이정희 (2013). 비정치적 온라인 커뮤니티에서의 정치적 의견표현. <사이버커뮤니케이션학보>, 30권 2호, 73-109.
  • 우형진 (2007). 휴대폰 이용자의 자아성향이 휴대폰 중독 구성요인에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 자존감, 자기효능감, 자기통제력 변인을 중심으로. <한국방송학보>, 21권 2호, 391-427.
  • 음수연 (2005). 온라인 토론을 통한 여론형성. <정보통신정책>, 17권 22호, 1-24.
  • 이미라·강경철·이상우(2011). 제한적 본인확인제 적용 유무에 따른 댓글 유형 차이가 댓글 문화 형성에 미치는 영향에 대한 분석: 일반댓글과 소셜댓글의 자기통제 정도의 차이를 중심으로. <사이버커뮤니케이션학보>, 28권 3호, 5-42.
  • 조아름·유태용 (2014). 종업원 침묵행동과 상사지원인식, 절차공정성인식의 관계에서 침묵동기의 매개효과. <한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직>, 27권 2호, 291-315.
  • 최선규·지성구 (2012). 상사의 행동특성이 구성원의 심리적 안전감, 침묵과 친사회적 발언행동에 미치는 영향. <조직과 인사관리연구>, 36집 4권, 99-123.
  • 최진호·박진우·손동영 (2017). 소셜미디어와 뉴스 인식: 인지된 네트워크 구조가 뉴스 신뢰도와 공유의도에 미치는 영향. <한국방송학보>, 31권 1호, 184-219.
  • 최희재·이준기·김정원 (2009). 온라인 커뮤니티에서 기술적, 사회적 익명성이 자기통제에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. <인터넷정보학회논문지>, 10권 1호, 63-74.
  • 한주리·허경호 (2004). 이동전화 중독 척도 개발 및 타당성 검증. <한국언론학보>, 48권 6호, 138-165.
  • 한혜경 (2003). 여론 지각 매체로서 인터넷에 관한 연구: 디지털조선과 오마이뉴스 독자 집단의 의사합의(false consensus) 지각 비교를 중심으로. <한국언론학보>, 47권 4호, 5-33.