The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies (KSJCS)
[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 6, pp.295-333
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Dec 2021
Received 02 Aug 2021 Accepted 12 Nov 2021 Revised 01 Dec 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.6.007

포스트-지진 재난 상황에서 지역기반 소셜미디어를 통한 시민관여

김진희** ; 서미혜*** ; 김용찬***
**포스텍 인문사회학부 부교수, 제1저자, 교신저자 jinheekim@postech.ac.kr
***성균관대 미디어커뮤니케이션학과 교수 mhseo@skku.edu
****연세대 언론홍보영상학부 교수 yongckim@yonsei.ac.kr
Localized Social Media and Post-Earthquake Civic Engagement
Jinhee Kim** ; Mihye Seo*** ; Yong-Chan Kim***
**Pohang University of Science and Technology, Associate Professor jinheekim@postech.ac.kr
***Sungkyunkwan University, Professor mhseo@skku.edu
****Yonsei University, Professor yongckim@yonsei.ac.kr

초록

본 연구는 2017년 11월 15일 발생한 규모 5.4 포항지진 발생 이후 나타난 가족 내 주 돌봄주체들의 지역기반 소셜미디어인 ‘포항맘놀이터’를 통한 자발적 시민관여를 예측하는 요소들을 탐색했다. 지진 재난은 인구 약 50만 정도의 중소규모 지방도시에서 발생했고, 재난의 영향력도 해당 도시에 제한되었다. 따라서 포항과 비(非)포항(특히 수도권)과의 집단 간 경쟁이 첨예해지면서, 재난 발생 지역에 기반한 사회정체성이 시민관여를 이해하는데 핵심적 요소로 부각된다. 지역기반 소셜미디어 회원인 돌봄주체들을 대상으로 실시한 온라인 설문조사(n = 530) 결과, 포항기반의 지역 정체성, 인재로 밝혀진 재난을 둘러싼 만성적 분노, 그리고 기성언론(특히 수도권 기반의 중앙언론)에 대한 부정적 지각이 시민관여를 예측하는 주요 요소로 밝혀졌다. 또한 지역 정체성과 분노는 외집단 정보원인 중앙언론과 내집단 정보원인 지역언론에 대한 부정적 지각을 각각 차별적으로 예측하면서 시민관여에 상이하게 기여하는 양상을 보였다. 본 연구는 기존에 독립적으로 연구되었던 재난과 시민관여, 소셜미디어 기반의 시민관여, 기성언론에 대한 부정적 지각에 따른 대안매체 이용 등의 영역을 통합하여 초유의 지진 재난 상황에 적용한 의의가 있다. 나아가 심화되고 있는 수도권과 지방의 집단적 갈등에서 재난 시민들이 지각한 사회구조적 불평등 요소를 결합하여 지배집단에 저항하는 시민관여를 밝힘으로써 재난 시티즌십 영역의 확장을 시도했다.

Abstract

On November 15, 2017, a magnitude-5.4 earthquake struck Pohang, a medium-sized city located in the Southeastern region of South Korea. This earthquake was recorded as the second largest in history since the first observations of earthquakes on the Korean Peninsula. Surprisingly, it turned out that the earthquake was not a natural earthquake beyond human control but was triggered by the operation of a geothermal power plant near the epicenter. Against this backdrop, primary caregivers in the affected families participated in active civic engagement through localized social media known as Pohang Mom Playground. They held a press conference and collected signatures to urge the dominant group to make the city safe and livable. This study explores several factors that predict Pohang moms’ voluntary civic engagement after the earthquake outbreak. Unlike the COVID-19 global pandemic, the impact of the disaster was limited to the city, Pohang. Therefore, based on social identity perspectives, competition and conflict between regional area (periphery) and Seoul metropolitan area (center) have become sharper as hundreds of aftershocks continued across two years. Accordingly, social identity based in Pohang has emerged as a key element in understanding civic engagement. Five hypotheses and one research question were derived from the three theoretical perspectives of social identity (self-categorization theory, social identity theory, and social identity model of collective action). An online survey (n = 530) with female Pohang Mom Playground members was conducted around 22 months after the earthquake outbreak. Results showed the three main predictors of civic engagement through localized social media: Pohang based regional identity (or ingroup identification) that had existed before the disaster, angry feelings that had been chronically accessible due to the disaster caused by the operation of the geothermal power plant, and negative perception of disaster news stories covered by established media, particularly mainstream news media based in Seoul. In addition, regional identity and feelings of anger also tended to contribute to civic engagement by differentially predicting the negative perceptions of mainstream news media (outgroup information source) and local news media (ingroup information source) that cover earthquake disasters. Specifically, the negative perception of disaster news covered by both mainstream and local media was strengthened as angry feelings increased. However, regional identity revealed a complicated picture. As predicted, the negative perception of local news media was weakened as regional identity increased; however, contrary to the prediction, the negative perception of mainstream news media was not strengthened as regional identity increased. Overall, the current research holds significance in terms of integrating previously independently researched areas, such as disaster and civic engagement, social media-based civic engagement, negative perception of the established news media and its association with the use of alternative media, and in applying these areas to the unprecedented earthquake disaster situation. Furthermore, this study has the implications of expanding the realm of disaster citizenship by integrating social structural elements of disadvantage and inequality perceived by disaster citizens in the ever-increasing group conflict between Seoul metropolitan (center) and non-metropolitan (periphery) areas.

Keywords:

Civic Engagement, Localized Social Media, Disaster Citizen, Social Identity, 2017 Pohang Earthquake

키워드:

시민관여, 지역기반 소셜미디어, 재난시민, 사회정체성, 2017 포항지진

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by POSTECH Peace Institute. The original version of the manuscript was presented at the 2021 Spring Conference of Korean Political Communication Association. The authors would like to thank professors Sungjin Rye and Yongmin Ryu for their valuable comments.(본 연구는 포스텍평화연구소의 지원을 받아 수행되었습니다. 초안은 2021년 개최된 한국정치커뮤니케이션학회 봄철 정기학술대회에서 발표되었고, 이후 전면 수정하여 작성되었습니다. 건설적인 토론을 해주신 대구대 류성진 교수와 인제대 유용민 교수께 감사드립니다.)

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