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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 1

[ Journalism Communication ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 1, pp.49-90
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 29 Feb 2020
Received 09 Aug 2019 Revised 11 Jan 2020 Accepted 31 Jan 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.1.002

공영방송 TV뉴스의 익명취재원 이용 : KBS <뉴스 9>와 BBC <10시뉴스>의 비교 분석
오해정* ; 김경모**
*이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션·미디어학부 박사과정, MBC 기자 (rosy217@naver.com)
**연세대학교 언론홍보영상학부 교수 (kkmo@yonsei.ac.kr)

Anonymous Sources in Public Broadcasting News: A Comparative Analysis of KBS <News 9> and BBC <News at 10>
Hae Jung Oh* ; Kyungmo Kim**
*Doctoral Student, Division of Communication·Media, Ewha Womans University/Reporter, Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (rosy217@naver.com)
**Professor, Department of Communication, Yonsei University, corresponding author (kkmo@yonsei.ac.kr)

초록

뉴스에서 취재원의 투명성과 적시는 기사의 품질 요건인 신뢰도, 사실성, 전문성 등과 직결된다. 이 연구는 KBS <뉴스 9>에 나타난 익명취재원 이용 실태를 영국 BBC <10시뉴스>와 비교함으로써 기존에 잘 이뤄지지 않았던 한국 방송뉴스의 익명취재원 이용 현황에 대해 유형화를 시도했다. 주 구성 표집에 따라 추출한 약 2주 분량의 기자 리포트 329건(KBS 253건, BBC 76건)을 내용 분석한 결과, KBS 뉴스의 익명취재원 이용은 분석대상의 30%(76건)에 달해 BBC 뉴스의 13.2%(10건)보다 훨씬 많은 것으로 나타났다. 두 방송사의 취재보도 가이드라인이 익명취재원 이용을 최소한으로 제한하는 비슷한 규정을 두고 있음에도 익명 보도 현실은 큰 차이를 드러냈다. 비교 분석을 통해 KBS는 일반 시민의 완전한 익명 처리가 빈번하고, 사회기사의 익명 취재 비중이 높으며, 취재원의 신원을 가리기 위해 모자이크와 음성변조를 혼용하는 편집기법을 자주 동원하는 특징이 관찰됐다. 특히 익명취재원의 기사 내 역할을 분석한 결과, KBS는 이해당사자의 입장을 반영하거나 현장성을 살리기 위해 익명취재원을 사용하는 특징이 상대적으로 두드러졌다. 심층 인터뷰에 응한 KBS 중견기자에 따르면, 현장성을 중시하는 보도국 분위기 때문에 기자들이 익명으로라도 더 많은 취재원을 인용하려 한다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. 이에 반해 BBC는 익명취재원을 사용한 보도 건수가 10건에 불과해 조직 차원에서 자사 가이드라인을 충실하게 준수한다는 사실을 유추할 수 있었다. 익명취재원 이용을 둘러싼 저널리즘 원칙의 실천이라는 맥락에서 두 방송사의 조직 문화와 취재 관행의 차이가 익명 보도의 질적 차이로 이어질 개연성을 논의했다.

Abstract

Transparency of a news source is directly related to reliability, realism, and professionalism, which are the requirements of quality journalism. The present study compared the use of anonymous sources in KBS <News 9> to BBC <News at 10> and eventually aimed to identify the pattern of using anonymous sources in Korean broadcasting news. According to an analysis of 329 reports (253 of KBS, 76 of BBC), the use of anonymous sources in KBS news reached 30 percent (76 cases) of all reports, which was far higher than 13.2 percent (10 cases) of BBC. The reality of anonymous coverage has shown a big difference, even though the two broadcasters' editorial guidelines had similar regulations that limited the use of anonymous sources to a minimum. KBS frequently used ordinary citizens as anonymous sources and had a high percentage of anonymously sourced reporting. Another characteristic of KBS anonymous-source reports was editing techniques such as image blurring and voice modulation. In particular, an analysis of the anonymous sources’ role in the reports revealed that KBS, unlike BBC, had the characteristic of using anonymous sources to reflect the interested parties or to increase the vividness of the reports. An in-depth interview with a KBS journalist confirmed that it was preferable to cite more sources’ comments, even if they were anonymous, due to the news agency’s atmosphere which values the quality of vividness. Also, it has been found out that the KBS guideline which allows reporters to include off-the-record information in the reports without mentioning the source, facilitated the excessive use of anonymous sources. Therefore, these characteristics should be reconsidered. From the analysis above, researchers concluded that KBS guidelines limiting the use of anonymous sources didn't function properly, and the misfunction may undermine the ethical virtues of journalism and credibility of news reports. Researchers assumed that such excessive use of anonymous sources has a close relation with chronic problems in Korean journalism, such as heavy reliance on government institutions and business, Korean-style news format, and the organizational culture which undervalues the use of transparent sources in reporting. On the other hand, only 10 BBC articles that used anonymous sources were found, so researchers assumed that BBC reporters faithfully followed its guidelines. In the context of implementing the principles of journalism surrounding the use of anonymous sources, researchers discussed what efforts should be supported to prevent misuse of anonymous sources. Further practical implications are discussed.


Keywords: News, Anonymous Source, Editorial Guideline, Reporting Routines, Content Analysis
키워드: TV뉴스, 익명취재원, 취재보도 가이드라인, 취재 관행, 내용분석

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