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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 4, pp.167-209
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2020
Received 10 Apr 2020 Revised 27 Jul 2020 Accepted 04 Aug 2020

다차원적 코즈모폴리턴 정향 척도 : 미디어 이용과 커뮤니케이션 태도를 중심으로
조아라** ; 김용찬***
**연세대학교 커뮤니케이션 연구소 연구원 (
***연세대학교 언론홍보영상학부 교수 (

Development and Validation of a Scale for Measuring Multi-dimensional Cosmopolitan Orientation With Focuses on Media Use and Communication Attitude
Ahra Cho** ; Yong-Chan Kim***
**Research Fellow, Communication Research Institute, Yonsei University (
***Professor, Department of Communication, Yonsei University, corresponding author (
Funding Information ▼


세계화와 커뮤니케이션 기술의 발달로, 점점 더 많은 사람들이 일상에서 민족적/문화적/국가적 경계를 넘는 다양한 경험들을 하고 있다. ‘다름’의 문제는 이제 어느 곳에서나 중요한 화두가 되었다. 본 연구의 목적은 코즈모폴리터니즘의 실증적 선행 연구들을 비판적으로 검토하여, 다름에 대한 개방성을 개인 수준에서 측정할 수 있는 다차원적 코즈모폴리턴 정향 척도를 마련하는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 ‘문화적 차원(초국적 소비)’, ‘윤리적 차원(민족적/문화적 타자에 대한 개방성)’, ‘미디어 이용 차원(초국적 미디어 이용)’, ‘커뮤니케이션 태도 차원(관용적 커뮤니케이션 태도)’ 등 4가지 하위 차원으로 구성된 코즈모폴리턴 정향 척도를 제안하였으며 통계적 검증을 통해 차원 구성의 타당도와 신뢰도를 확인하였다. 연구를 위한 데이터는 온라인 설문조사를 통해 수집했다(N = 557). 확인적 요인분석 결과, 본 논문에서 새로 제안한 다차원적 코즈모폴리턴 정향 척도의 하위 차원 구성과 측정은 통계적으로 받아들일만한 수준의 양호한 데이터 적합도를 나타냈다.


With globalization and the development of communication technology, the issues of difference and diversity have become important in most societies and more and more people experience various situations and activities crossing ethnic/cultural boundaries in their daily lives. Recently, cosmopolitanism has received much attention in various disciplines as a concept for explaining the new social experiences and conditions of the globalized world. The core concept of cosmopolitanism has always been associated with the openness to difference such as an orientation to a larger community transcending the location, tolerance towards diversity, and open-mindedness to otherness. Based on a critical review of prior empirical studies of cosmopolitanism, the current study discusses individual-level ”cosmopolitan orientation“ or openness to difference as multi-dimensional phenomena. The primary purpose of the current study is to conceptualize and test the validity of a multi-dimensional scale to measure cosmopolitan orientation. This new multi-dimensional scale consists of (1) cultural dimension: transnational consumption, (2) ethical dimension: openness to ethnic/cultural others, (3) media use dimension: transnational use of media, and (4) communication attitude dimension: tolerant communication attitude. Ethical and cultural dimension have been mainly featured in scholarly descriptions of the cosmopolitanism. In this study, we proposed to add media use and communication attitude as another important dimensions of cosmopolitan characteristics based on the review of earlier research on the possibility and usefulness of media and communication to transcend ethical, cultural, and national boundaries. Particularly, this study focused on activeness of transnational media use and tolerance in communication with others from different cultures or perspectives. Items of the scale were developed and refined based on prior empirical studies of cosmopolitanism, our own focus group interviews, expert evaluations, and pilot survey interviews. The main data for this study was collected by online survey conducted between April and May in 2018 with 557 residents of Seoul aged between 19 and 59. We conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis for evaluating construct validity and criterion-relation validity of the multi-dimensional cosmopolitan orientation scale. Especially, three models of data factor structure were compared for testing construct validity of the new scale: 1) single factor model, 2) 4-factors model, and 3) second-order model (cosmopolitan orientation loads into 4 underlying sub-components). In addition, overseas travel frequency and the number of foreign acquaintances were used for criterion variables expected positive relationships with the scale. The results showed that the 4-dimensional scale of cosmopolitan orientation with second-order model developed and proposed in this study was valid and reliable. The implications of these findings were discussed.

Keywords: Cosmopolitanism, Cosmopolitan orientation, media use, communication, difference
키워드: 코즈모폴리터니즘, 코즈모폴리턴 정향, 미디어 이용, 커뮤니케이션, 다름


This work was based on the dissertation submitted by Ahra Cho for Ph.D. degree and was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF-2019S1A5B5A01047336). (본 논문은 1저자의 박사학위 논문의 일부를 수정·보완 및 재구성한 것이며, 2019년 대한민국 교육부와 한국연구재단의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임(NRF-2019S1A5B5A01047336)).

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