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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 4, pp.325-354
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2020
Received 06 Jun 2020 Revised 27 Jul 2020 Accepted 04 Aug 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.4.009

누가 뉴스 맞춤화(customization)를 이용하며 시민역량에 어떤 영향을 미치는가? : 정향욕구, 뉴스 맞춤화, 의제다양성의 관계를 중심으로
Zhieh Lor* ; 최지향**
*이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션·미디어학부 박사과정 (jiaeeh_13@naver.com)
**이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션·미디어학부 조교수 (choi20@ewha.ac.kr)

News Customization and Its Effects on Citizen Competence : Need for Orientation, News Customization and Agenda Diversity
Zhieh Lor* ; Jihyang Choi**
*Doctoral Student, Division of Communication·Media, Ewha Womans University (jiaeeh_13@naver.com)
**Assistant Professor, Division of Communication·Media, Ewha Womans University, corresponding author (choi20@ewha.ac.kr)

초록

본 연구는 뉴스과부하 시대에 대응하기 위한 뉴스 이용 방안으로 많은 시민들이 택하는 뉴스 맞춤화(customization)에 초점을 맞춰 누가 뉴스 맞춤화를 이용하는지 그리고 맞춤화 방식의 뉴스이용이 시민역량에는 어떤 영향을 미치는지 파악하고자 한다. 여기에서 뉴스 맞춤화는 최종 소비하게 되는 뉴스가 선택되는 구조를 설정하는 과정에 이용자가 명백하게 참여하는 행위를 가리킨다. 구체적으로 뉴스 맞춤화 이용정도를 결정하는 요인으로 정향욕구의 역할을 알아보았으며 맞춤화 이용이 영향을 미칠 수 있는 주요 시민역량으로 의제다양성에 집중해 연구했다. 분석을 위해서는 2019년 대한민국 성인 1,264명을 대상으로 실시한 설문조사 데이터를 이용했다. 연구결과 뉴스 이용자들은 뉴스의 주제와 매체에 대한 선호에 따라 맞춤화를 이용하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 즉 이용자들은 자신이 특별히 관심을 가지고 있는 주제에 대한 뉴스만 골라 볼 필요, 많은 뉴스 출처 중 자신이 선호하는 것을 골라서 소비할 필요성에 따라 맞춤화 환경을 디자인한다. 정향욕구와 의제다양성의 관계를 파악하기 위해 연구자들은 정향욕구를 이슈정향욕구, 사실정향욕구, 평가정향욕구 등 세 가지의 차원으로 나누어 그 역할을 각각 알아보았다. 이슈정향욕구는 지속적이고 신속하게 주요 뉴스 이슈를 파악하고자 하는 욕구를, 사실정향욕구는 주요 뉴스 이슈와 관련한 사실에 대해 심층적이고 세부적으로 알고자 하는 욕구를, 평가정향욕구는 이슈에 대해 언론이 어떻게 판단하는지 의견을 파악하고자 하는 욕구를 의미한다. 분석 결과 이슈정향욕구가 높은 이들은 매체 맞춤화를 평가정향욕구가 높은 이들은 주제 맞춤화와 매체 맞춤화 모두를 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. 반면 사실정향욕구는 뉴스 맞춤화 이용과 통계적으로 유의미한 연관성이 없었다. 연구결과는 두 종류의 맞춤화 중 주제 맞춤화 이용이 의제다양성에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 가능성을 보여준다. 주제 맞춤화는 이슈정향욕구와 의제다양성의 관계 그리고 평가정향욕구와 의제다양성의 관계를 부적으로 매개하는 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 매체 맞춤화와 의제다양성 간에는 의미 있는 관계가 발견되지 않았다. 맞춤화 이용이 시민의 의제다양성을 저해할 수 있음을 보여준 본 연구 결과는 뉴스 이용자나 뉴스 서비스 제공자가 뉴스의 기능과 역할에 대한 고민에 바탕 해 맞춤화 환경을 설계해야 할 필요성이 있음을 시사한다. 특히 뉴스 제공자의 경우 맞춤화 환경을 제공함으로써 이용자를 늘리고 이용자의 만족도를 높일 수는 있겠지만 환경감시, 사회통합, 상관조정 등과 같은 언론의 사회적 기능은 제대로 수행할 수 없다는 딜레마에 빠질 수밖에 없다. 본 연구는 그 함의에 대해서도 논의한다.

Abstract

The present study sheds light on news customization, a frequently adopted strategy to cope with news overload. Researchers aimed to reveal who the users of news customization are and what the possible effects of such news use on citizen competence are. In this study, news customization is defined as users’ explicit involvement in the process of tailoring news products that they will eventually consume. Specifically, researchers focused on the role of need for orientation as a possible antecedent of news customization, as well as agenda diversity as a potential consequence of the customized way of news use. For analysis, original survey data among 1,264 Korean adults were employed. Findings show that users customize news depending on their preferred news topic and outlet. In other words, users design their customized news environment based on the need to selectively consume news that deals with topics of their interests, as well as the need to receive news from their preferred news outlets among prevalent news providers. To reveal the relationship between need for orientation and agenda diversity, we examined separately the role of three different dimensions of need for orientation: orientation for issue, orientation for facts, and orientation for evaluation. The orientation for issue refers to the need to be informed about current news issues instantly and constantly; the orientation for facts refers to the need to know about the details of news issues; and the orientation for evaluation means the need to know news media’s comments and opinions about news issues. Results show that those who have high orientation for issue are more likely to use news outlet customization and those who have high orientation for evaluation demonstrate a higher tendency to use both news outlet customization and news topic customization. However, the relationship between orientation for facts and news customization was not statistically significant. Result also shows that news topic customization may have negative effects on citizen's agenda diversity. News topic customization negatively mediates the relationship between orientation for issue and agenda diversity, as well as the relationship between orientation for evaluation and agenda diversity. The findings about the potentially negative effects of news customization on agenda diversity suggest that news users and news providers need to design the customization environment considering the social role of news. Enhanced customization may attract more users and increase users’ perceived level of satisfaction, but such service may not fulfill the socially expected function of news, such as surveillance of environment, social cohesion, and correlation of environmental parts. Implications of the findings and suggestions for news users and news service providers have been discussed.


Keywords: News Customization, Need for Orientation, Agenda Diversity
키워드: 뉴스 맞춤화, 정향욕구, 의제다양성

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