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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 4, pp.355-399
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2020
Received 06 Jun 2020 Revised 27 Jul 2020 Accepted 04 Aug 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.4.010

재난 보도 프레임이 수용자 감정과 인지에 미치는 영향 : 구체적 감정의 매개효과, 미디어 양식과 위험 신호가능성의 조절효과 중심
임인재**
**서울대학교 언론정보학과 박사후국내연수 (mimohhh@naver.com)

The Influence of Disaster Reporting Frames on Emotion and Cognition : A Focus on the Mediating Effect of Discrete emotions, the Moderating Effect of Media Modality and Signal Potential of Risk
In-jae Lim**
**Post-Doc, Department of Communication at Seoul National University (mimohhh@naver.com)

초록

본 연구는 재난 보도 프레임의 영향력을 수용자의 인지적 효과에서 감정의 효과로 확장하는 데 목적이 있다. 구체적으로 재난 보도 프레임(일화 vs 수치)이 위험 관련 행동의도(예방, 회피, 처벌, 사회참여)에 영향을 미치는 과정에, 인지적 평가와 부정적 감정이 매개효과를 보이는지 탐구했다. 이와 함께 인지적 평가와 부정적 감정의 매개효과 경로도 살펴보았다. 그리고 재난 보도 프레이밍 효과 메커니즘에서 미디어 변수(미디어 양식, 동영상 vs. 텍스트)와 비미디어 변수(위험의 신호가능성, 높음 vs 낮음)가 조절변수로 역할을 하는지 알아보았다. 미세먼지와 산불 관련 보도를 실험 대상으로 삼고 유사실험을 진행했다(N=576). 분석결과, 재난의 일화적 프레임에서 유발된 인지적 평가들(심리적 거리감, 자아 관여도)과 구체적인 부정적 감정들(공포, 불안, 슬픔)은 행동의도에 직접적으로 유의미한 영향을 미쳤다. 재난 일화적 프레임이 행동의도에 영향을 미치는 과정에, ‘인지적 평가→부정적 감정’ 경로는 유의미했으며 ‘부정적 감정→인지적 평가’ 경로는 부분적으로 유의미하였다. 그리고 미디어 양식과 위험의 신호가능성의 조절된 매개효과는 유의미한 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 토대로, 본 연구는 향후 재난 보도는 피해를 경험한 개인의 이야기를 포함하면서, 중간 정도 각성수준의 감정(슬픔, 불안)을 불러일으키는 프레임으로 전달돼야 한다고 제시하였다. 이와 더불어, 재난 관련 예방행동의도를 촉진하는 데 있어 동영상의 미디어 양식이 더 효과적이다는 결론을 도출하였다. 본 연구는 실증적인 연구를 통해 재난 보도 프레이밍의 인지 효과를 감정 중심의 효과로 확장했다는 것에서 의미가 있을 것이다.

Abstract

The study investigated the different impacts of the disaster reporting types (episodic frame vs. numeric frame) on cognitive appraisals and negative emotions. The mediating effects of negative emotions and cognitive appraisals were explored in the process of revealing the relationship between the types of disaster reporting and behavioral intentions (prevention, avoidance, punishment, and social participatory). Also, the moderating effects of a media variable (media modality, video vs. text) and non-media variable (signal potential of risk, high vs. low) were explored. Particulate matter and forest-fire disaster coverages were studied (N = 576). A total of eight stimuli were made for each experimental condition. Among the negative emotions, fear, anxiety, sadness, and anger were targeted. The cognitive appraisals consisted of psychological distance, ego involvement, and responsible attribution (others, environment). As a result, episodic frames had a greater impact on cognitive appraisals and negative emotions than numeric frames had. Also, the direct mediating effects of cognitive appraisals (psychological distance, ego involvement) and discrete negative emotions (fear, anxiety, sadness) caused by episodic frames were significant. In particular, the sadness and anxiety caused by episodic frames had a positive effect on preventive behavioral intention, and the fear induced by episodic frames had a positive effect on avoidance and social participatory behavioral intentions. Among cognitive appraisals, psychological distance and ego involvement had a positive effect on preventive behavioral intention. The dual mediating effects of cognitive appraisals and negative emotions were significant. Specifically, the mediation path of ‘cognitive appraisal→negative emotion’ was significant, and the mediation path of ‘negative emotion→cognitive appraisal’ was partially significant. The moderated mediation effects of media modality and signal potential of risk were confirmed. Based on these results, this study suggested that disaster reports should be delivered in a frame that arouses medium-level of arousal emotions (sadness, anxiety), including stories of individuals who have experienced disaster damage. It was also concluded that the media modality of video is more effective in promoting preventive behavioral intention. In addition, this study suggested that the qualitative characteristics of the disaster (signal potential of risk) can be a moderating variable that influences the effectiveness of the disaster reporting framing. This study showed that psychological distance can be one of the cognitive appraisals that has a significant effect on the emotional response (fear, anxiety, sadness, and anger) to disaster reporting. Finally, this study is meaningful by extending the cognitive framing effect on disaster reporting to an emotional framing effect through empirical studies. Research implications based on the results were discussed and further ramifications were suggested.


Keywords: Disaster reporting, Framing effect, Cognitive appraisals, Negative emotions, Behavioral intention
키워드: 재난 보도, 프레이밍 효과, 인지적 평가, 부정적 감정, 행동의도

Acknowledgments

This study is based on the data of Lim In-jae’s Ph.D. dissertation in Sogang University (February 2020, Advisor: Na Eun-Young). (이 논문은 임인재의 서강대학교 박사학위 논문(2020년 2월, 지도교수: 나은영) 중 일부를 발췌해 수정, 재구성한 것입니다.)


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