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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 5

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 5, pp.153-192
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Oct 2020
Received 03 Aug 2020 Revised 28 Sep 2020 Accepted 05 Oct 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.5.005

자아조절자원이 미디어 멀티태스킹 이용 행태에 미치는 영향
김류원** ; 정세훈***
**한국저작권보호원 선임 (sabim@korea.ac.kr)
***고려대학교 미디어학부 교수 (sjeong@korea.ac.kr)

The Effects of Self-Regulatory Resources on Media Multitasking Behavior
Ryuwon Kim** ; Se-Hoon Jeong***
**Senior Manager, Korea Copyright Protection Agency (sabim@korea.ac.kr)
***Professor, School of Media and Communication, Korea University, corresponding author (sjeong@korea.ac.kr)
Funding Information ▼

초록

본 연구에서는 정보처리 이론을 중심으로 미디어 멀티태스킹이 요구하는 인지적 자원과 미디어를 이용하는 시점에 이용자가 보유한 이용자의 자아조절자원 수준에 따른 미디어 멀티태스킹 이용 행태의 차이를 살펴보았다. 실험실 PC에서 복수의 콘텐츠를 동시에 이용하는 미디어 내 멀티태스킹(within multitasking) 상황에서 자아조절자원 수준(비고갈 vs. 고갈)에 따라 콘텐츠 간 전환 횟수(멀티태스킹 빈도)의 차이가 있는지, 이러한 행동의 기저에 있는 심리적 동기가 자아조절자원에 따라 다르게 나타나는지, 또한 상이한 동기를 바탕으로 멀티태스킹 과정에서 구체적으로 선택하고 이용하는 콘텐츠 유형(정보적 또는 오락적)의 차이가 있는지, 마지막으로 이에 따른 인지적 성과의 차이가 나타나는지 살펴보았다. 연구 결과 첫째, 자아조절자원 비고갈 집단에 비해 고갈 집단이 멀티태스킹을 더 빈번히 한 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 이러한 차이는 자원고갈 수준에 따른 상이한 심리적 동기의 활성화에 기인하는 것으로 확인되었다. 구체적으로, 자원 비고갈 집단에서는 정보습득을 중심으로 한 인지적 동기가 강한 반면, 고갈 집단에서는 지루함을 탈피하기 위한 오락적 동기가 멀티태스킹 행동을 유발하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 이러한 상이한 동기는 각 집단이 멀티태스킹 과정에서 이용한 미디어 콘텐츠 유형의 차이로 이어졌는데 정보적 콘텐츠(인터넷 뉴스 기사, 포털 정보 검색)에 대해서는 집단 간 이용 빈도의 차이가 나타나지 않은 반면, 오락적 콘텐츠(게임)의 경우 자원 비고갈 집단보다 고갈 집단이 더 빈번히 이용한 것으로 나타나 고갈 집단에서 인지적 부담이 큰 콘텐츠에 대한 회피 경향성이 더 강하게 나타났다. 넷째, 이러한 서로 다른 콘텐츠 이용의 결과로 미디어 메시지에 대한 재인 기억은 자아조절자원 고갈 집단보다 비고갈 집단에서 더 높게 나타난 반면, 게임에서 더 고득점을 획득한 것은 고갈 집단이었다. 종합하면, 이용자가 미디어 이용 시점에 보유한 자아조절자원의 수준에 따라 상이한 미디어 멀티태스킹 동기(정보습득/오락추구)가 활성화되고 이를 바탕으로 구체적으로 이용하는 미디어 콘텐츠의 유형(정보적 콘텐츠/오락적 콘텐츠)이 달라지며, 그 결과로 메시지를 얼마나 잘 이해하고 기억하는가에 대한 인지적 성과의 차이가 나타났다. 특히 자아조절자원 비고갈 상황에서 정보습득 동기를 바탕으로 콘텐츠와 관련된 정보를 검색하는 정보 추구형 멀티태스킹은 인지적 측면에 긍정적인 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 확인함으로써 기존 선행연구에서 주장해온 멀티태스킹 이용과 성과의 부적(-) 관계가 반드시 성립하는 것이 아니라 미디어 이용 시점에 보유한 이용자의 자아조절자원 수준에 따라 상이하게 나타날 수 있음을 확인하였다.

Abstract

The present research examined the effects of self-regulatory resource depletion on media multitasking behavior based on information processing theory. The main goal of this study was to investigate the predictors and consequences of media multitasking behavior as a function of self-regulatory resource depletion. We specifically tested media multitasking frequency, motivation, contents and task performance under different levels of self-regulatory resources (non-depleted vs. depleted). We designed an experiment where fifty-two college students were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions: a non-depletion condition or a depletion condition. Both groups used five different online contents (video, news article, web portal, and two different game websites) on a PC. Participants were instructed to switch freely among the five different types of contents as in a naturalistic setting because media users often engage in a type of multitasking where they switch between different tasks on a PC. The results showed that, first, the frequency of switching between contents was greater in the self-regulatory resource depleted group compared to the non-depleted group. Second, there were differences in the motivation for multitasking, which varied by the level of self-regulatory resources. Specifically, the major motivation for multitasking in the non-depleted group was cognitive motive (e.g., to obtain more information), whereas the major motivation for multitasking in the depleted group was entertainment motive (e.g., to avoid boredom). Third, these different motivations for multitasking led to differences in the use of content types when multitasking (informative vs. entertainment). Specifically, there was no difference in the use of informative contents (news and information search on web portal), whereas there was a difference in the use of entertainment contents (games), such that the resource depleted group used more entertainment content. Fourth, task performance for cognitive outcome (recognition memory) was higher in the non-depleted group than the depleted group, while task performance for entertainment outcome (game score) was higher in the depleted group than the non-depleted group. These results indicate that different motivations for media multitasking (information acquisition or entertainment seeking) could be activated according to the level of self-regulatory resources, and as a result of these different motivations, the types of media content used could vary when multitasking. Also, when self-regulatory resources are not depleted, information seeking multitasking may have positive cognitive outcomes. Previous research has suggested that media multitasking tends to have a negative impact on task performance, yet the findings of this research suggest that the effect of media multitasking might vary by the level of self-regulatory resources available at the time of media use.


Keywords: Media Multitasking, Task Switching, Self-regulation, Self-regulatory Resources, Ego-depletion
키워드: 미디어 멀티태스킹, 인지적 차원 모형, 정보처리, 자아조절자원, 자아고갈

Acknowledgments

This study is based on the doctoral dissertation of the first author. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF-2019S1A5A2A01045465). 본 논문은 제1 저자의 박사학위 논문의 일부를 발췌하여 작성되었으며, 이 논문은 2019년 대한민국 교육부와 한국연구재단의 인문사회분야 중견연구자지원사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임(NRF-2019S1A5A2A01045465).


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부록
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2. 김류원·정세훈 (2018). 자아조절자원과 메시지 난이도가 확증적 정보 처리에 미치는 영향. <홍보학연구>, 22권 4호, 1-26.
3. 방송통신위원회 (2020). 2019년 방송매체 이용행태 조사 보고서. Retrieved from http://m.kisdi.re.kr/mobile/repo/res_view.m?controlNoSer=5&key1=33977&key2=19199&key3=_&category=3&publishYear=&selectPage=6&category1=1&category2=2&category3=3&category4=4
4. 송시연·김영조 (2012). 소셜커머스 제품 구매행동에서 자아조절자원과 충동성의 역할. <상품학연구>, 30권, 1-7.
5. 송시연·박종원 (2009). 자아조절자원(self regulatory resource)과 과제유형(task type)이 선한 제품(virtue products)과 악한 제품(vice products) 간 의사결정에 미치는 효과. <소비자학연구>, 20권 4호, 1-25.
6. 염정윤·최인호·정세훈 (2019). 누가 어떤 미디어 멀티태스킹 조합을 많이 이용하는가?: 감각기관의 간섭 유형과 성별, 연령에 따른 차이에 관한 연구. <광고학연구>, 30권 2호, 7-28.
7. 이준웅·김은미·심미선 (2006). 다매체 이용자의 성향적 동기: 다매체 환경에서 이용과 충족 이론의 확장. <한국언론학보>, 50권 1호, 252-284.
8. 이혜미·강민지 (2015). TV-Mobile 미디어 동시 이용과 그 요인에 관한 연구: 미디어별 주요 장르 이용을 중심으로. <미디어 경제와 문화>, 13권 3호, 45-89.
9. 정만수 (1990). 광고연구와 정교화가능성모델의 유용성에 관한 고찰. <광고연구>, 봄호, 53-72.
10. 정보통신정책연구원 (2017). 미디어 동시 이용행태 분석: 스마트폰을 중심으로. <KISDI STAT Report>, 17권 8호.
11. 정세훈·염정윤·최인호·최수정·정민혜 (2017). 국내 미디어 멀티태스킹 연구 현황: 이용과 효과 연구를 중심으로. <한국광고홍보학보>, 19권 1호, 102-135.
12. 한국방송광고진흥공사 (2017). 2017년 소비자행태조사 보고서. Retrieved from https://adstat.kobaco.co.kr/mcr/portal/dataSet/fileInfoPage.do?orderState=regDt&pageSize=10&pageIndex=1&searchText=&datasetId=DS_MST_0000000226