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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64 , No. 6

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 64, No. 6, pp.43-76
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Dec 2020
Received 09 Oct 2020 Revised 30 Nov 2020 Accepted 03 Dec 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2020.64.6.002

시각장애인의 페이스북 이용 : 심층인터뷰 연구
박정숙** ; 김용찬***
**연세대학교 언론홍보대학원 석사 (ssookgod@yonsei.ac.kr)
***연세대학교 언론홍보영상학부 교수 (yongckim@yonsei.ac.kr)

Visually Impaired Facebook Users: In-depth interviews
Jung-Sook Park** ; Yong-Chan Kim***
**Master, Graduate School of Journalism and Mass Communication, Yonsei University (ssookgod@yonsei.ac.kr)
***Professor, Department of Communication, Yonsei University, corresponding author (yongckim@yonsei.ac.kr)

초록

본 연구의 목적은 시각장애인의 페이스북 이용 행태 및 동기, 그리고 이용 후의 결과에 대한 기대를 실증적으로 파악하는 것이다. 본 연구의 이론적 기반은 이용과 충족 이론이다. 본 연구를 위해 2019년 8월부터 10월까지 30명의 시각장애인을 심층 인터뷰하였다. 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 시각장애인들은 스마트폰과 ‘한소네’로 페이스북에 접속하였으며 뉴스피드·타임라인을 통해 지인의 근황 및 각종 뉴스와 정보를 확인하였다. 특히 그들은 댓글이나 공감기능을 이용하여 페이스북 친구들과 적극적으로 정서적 지원을 공유하고 있었다. 둘째, 페이스북을 이용하는 가장 중요한 동기는 정보추구와 사회적 관계형성이었다. 이 동기들의 충족이 페이스북 이용에 대한 시각장애인들의 만족을 이끄는 가장 중요한 요인들이었다. 셋째, 시각장애인들은 페이스북에서 정보와 정서적 자원을 활발하게 공유하고 있었다. 그리고 그러한 공유를 통해 비공식사회통제와 사회결집으로 구성되는 집합적 효능감을 축적하고 있었다. 넷째, 이미지, 사진, 영상 정보의 부재는 시각장애인들이 페이스북을 이용하는데 가장 큰 장벽이었다. 이러한 장벽을 넘어서도록 돕기 위해 오디오 해설 기능의 강화 등 다양한 정책적 개입이 필요하다. 시각장애인들의 페이스북 이용을 다룬 본 연구는 시각장애인들의 페이스북 이용 행태에 대한 이해를 넘어 다른 유형의 장애인들의 소셜미디어 이용에 대한 연구와 정책적 논의로 확대될 수 있다.

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to systematically understand the behaviors, motivations, and expected outcomes of visually impaired Facebook users in Korea. This study is theoretically based on uses and gratification theory. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 visually impaired Facebook users in Korea between August and October, 2019. The most important research findings inlcude the followings. (1) The visually impaired Facebook users interviewed for this study accessed Facebook mostly through their smartphones or Hansone devices. (2) Most of the visually impaired Facebook users in our study checked  their current status and information through news feeds and timelines on Facebook. (3) Visually impaired Facebook users provided positive emotional supports to their Facebook friends by sharing empathic comments on others’ postings. (4) The most important motivations for using Facebook among the visually impaired users in Korea were getting information and building/maintaining social relationships. (5) They actively share information and emotional resources with others, which would help them build collective efficacy composed of informal social control and social cohesion. (6) The biggest barrier for visually impaired Facebook users in their Facebook use was the absence of cues and information about images, photos, and videos shared on Facebook. Most importantly, the findings of this study confirmed that visually impaired Facebook users in Korea use Facebook very actively and creatively to meet their everyday needs (especially information needs and social relationship needs) despite various technical limitations. Visually impaired Facebook users in Korea tried to take advantage of most features of Facebook.

This study has theoretical and methodological implications as a study on social media use among individuals with disabilities. This study is one of the first attempts to examine visually impaired Facebook users in Korea. We conducted in-depth interviews with those who belong to a hard-to-reach population to ask about motivations, use patterns, perceived barriers, and expected and experienced outcomes of Facebook use. What we found with visually impaired Facebook users in Korea can be used for future studies about social media use by people with other types of disabilities.

The findings from th current study also has several policy implications. The findings about most important barriers to using Facebook by the visually impaired users suggest the necessity of tools that can provide audio descriptions about visual content (photos, images, videos, etc.) to users. In addition, the findings of this study suggest that video-on-demand (VOD) streaming content on social media have to be provided with audio commentary through portable mobile devices such as smartphones. The current study also suggests that policy-oriented studies should be conducted in the future to provide evidence-based policy recommendations for individuals with other types of disabilities.


Keywords: Visually Impaired people, Facebook, Audio description, Collective efficacy, In-depth interview
키워드: 시각장애인, 페이스북, 오디오 해설, 집합적 효능감, 심층 인터뷰

Acknowledgments

This work was based on the dissertation submitted by Jung-Sook Park for master's thesis(December 2019).(본 논문은 1저자의 석사학위 논문의 일부를 수정, 보완 및 재구성한 것임.)


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