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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 2, pp.75-113
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Apr 2021
Received 08 Feb 2021 Revised 31 Mar 2021 Accepted 22 Mar 2021
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.2.003

방송 뉴스가 재현하는 성범죄 피해 여성 이미지에 대한 키프레임 분석 : 가상물, 자료화면을 통한 피해자다움의 재생산과 익명-실명 보도의 차이를 중심으로
백지연** ; 윤호영***
**이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션·미디어학부 박사과정 (gybaek@ewhain.net)
***이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션·미디어학부 조교수 (hoyoungyoon@ewha.ac.kr)

Key Frame Analysis of Network TV News Covering Female Sexual Crime Victims : Victimization & Sensationalism of Visual Image
Giyeon Baek** ; Ho Young Yoon***
**Doctoral Student, Division of Communication·Media, Ewha Womans University (gybaek@ewhain.net)
***Assistant Professor, Division of Communication·Media, Ewha Womans University, corresponding author (hoyoungyoon@ewha.ac.kr)
Funding Information ▼

초록

본 연구는 방송 뉴스가 성범죄 피해 보도를 어떤 시각적 이미지로 보도하는 지 영상 키프레임 분석을 통해 살펴본 연구이다. 그동안의 보도 방식이 피해자다움을 기반으로 한 피해자 대상화, 타자화, 무력화 등 수동적인 면을 강조한 것과 달리 미투 실명 보도가 나타난 이후에도 이러한 기조가 유지되는지, 익명 보도와 실명 보도 사건을 동시에 비교하여 살펴보고자 하였다. JTBC 뉴스룸 뉴스에 2018년 1월부터 2020년 11월까지 약 3년간 나타난 피해자 보도 55건을 분석하여, 다음과 같은 결과를 얻을 수 있었다. 첫째, 성범죄 피해자에 대한 보도에 있어서 불필요한 자료 화면과 가상으로 재현된 여성 피해자의 모습은 대상화된 수동적 존재로서 ‘피해자다움’으로 표현되었다. 예를 들어, 고개 숙인 화면은 뉴스 내용과 상관없이 빈번히 재현되었다. 둘째, 익명 피해자 보도에서는 가상물로 된 표현이 동반되었는데, 이때 가상물 표현은 전형적인 수동적 피해자의 모습을 그렸다. 익명을 통한 증언이 수동적 주체와 피해자다움이 아님에도 불구하고, 해당 증언 보도시 가상시각적 표현을 활용하면서 대상화된 수동적 존재로 이미지 각인하는 방식이 활용되었다. 마지막으로, 실명 얼굴 공개에서는 익명 증언과 달리 피해자를 있는 그대로 보여주고, 피해자들 역시 대개 중립적인 표정으로 증언을 하는 있는 그대로의 재현이 나타났다. 이와 같은 세 가지 분석 결과는 방송 뉴스가 성범죄 피해자과 관련된 뉴스를 보도할 때, 보여주고자 하는 모습과 보여주는 모습이 피해자가 직접적으로 모습을 보여주는가 보여주지 않는가에 따라 다르게 적용되는 점을 알려주고 있으며, 뉴스 보도가 선정성 강조측면에서만 일관성이 있는 것을 보여주고 있다.

Abstract

This study examines how broadcasting news visually represents the victims of sex crimes. By looking at news reporting with key frame video analysis, the study asks whether the #MeToo movement has changed the way news media portrays the victims. According to previous literature, news reports tend to victimize female victims through objectification, othering, and neutralization. News reports also pursue sensationalism in sex crime reports and use news frames that reproduce and reinforce stereotypical perceptions of sex crime victims. We have delved into recent news reports on sex crime victims in order to see whether this tendency has continued after the #MeToo movement, a new phenomenon in which victims actively voice out their past by publicly revealing their names and faces. We have analyzed 55 news reports of sex crimes—either victims were reported anonymously or not—aired on JTBC Newsroom between January, 2018 and November, 2020. Our analysis led us to the following three findings. First, it was found that news reports frequently used objectified and passive female visual objects that were often irrelevant to the content of the news reports. Women were depicted with visual images that involved crouching or objectified illustrations which were not necessarily linked to the main news content. This evidence shows that the news media have not split away from their long-term habituation of female victimization. Second, portrayals of anonymous victim reports were accompanied by illustrations and artificial images that symbolized the passive female victims. The use of dark shadow illustrations was a distinct pattern found. Although anonymity is not equivalent synonym to passiveness, the news reports seemed to report as if they were the same, which again reinforces the stereotypical perceptions on sex crime victims. Lastly, unlike the practices in anonymous victim reporting, news media tended to broadcast MeToo real-name interviews and news scenes by showing the victims in their original appearances. We additionally analyzed the facial expressions of the victims with Microsoft Azure API service, which found that their facial expressions were dominated by neutral emotion in the interviews. In sum, the analysis results indicated that broadcast news reports have not changed in their news reporting practices for the victims of sex crimes. News media have contributed to the rise of the #MeToo movement by reporting on the stories of the victims but have fallen short of reporting on active women images and have kept their past sensational journalism practice.


Keywords: MeToo, Sex Crime Reporting, Victimization, Key Frame Analysis, Facial Analysis
키워드: 성범죄 보도, 피해자다움, 미투운동, 키프레임 분석, 시각 이미지

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ewha Womans University Research Grant of 2020 (이 연구는 2020학년도 이화여자대학교 교내연구비 지원에 의한 연구임).


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