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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 4, pp.5-69
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2021
Received 11 Dec 2020 Revised 16 Jul 2021 Accepted 05 Aug 2021
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.4.001

팩트체크 뉴스가 매체 신뢰도에 미치는 영향
정성욱** ; 윤석민***
**서울대학교 언론정보연구소 선임연구원
***서울대학교 언론정보학과 교수

Effect of fact-check news on media credibility rating
Sungwook Jung** ; Sugmin Youn***
**Senior Researcher, Institute of Communication Research, Seoul National University, first author (jj4863@naver.com)
***Professor, Department of Communication, Seoul National University, corresponding author (sugminyoun@gmail.com)
Funding Information ▼

초록

가짜 뉴스가 탈진실의 시대와 맞물려 민주주의를 교란시키고, 언론 신뢰 하락을 더욱 가속화시키고 있다. 이 같은 상황에서 크게는 민주주의를 지키고 작게는 무너진 언론의 신뢰를 재건하기 위해 최근 주목받고 있는 것이 바로 사실 검증 작업 곧 ‘팩트체크 뉴스’이다. 본 연구의 목적은 저널리즘의 새로운 형태인 이처럼 사실 여부를 알려주는 팩트체크 뉴스가 추락하는 언론 신뢰도를 회복시키고 위기의 언론을 다시 제자리로 돌릴 수 있을지 파악하는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 일반 뉴스와 구별되는 팩트체크 뉴스의 다양한 특징 가운데 2가지 특징, 즉 ‘판정 제시 방식’, 그리고 ‘판정의 명확성 여부’를 도출해 냈다. 그리고 이와 같은 두 가지 특징이 어떤 메커니즘을 통해 해당 매체의 신뢰도 회복에 영향을 미칠 수 있을지 실험을 통해 실증적으로 분석해 보았다. 분석 결과 수용자가 팩트체크 뉴스에 단지 노출되었다는 이유만으로 신뢰도가 증가하는 것은 아니었다. 매체 신뢰도 증가는 정치인의 주장을 검증한 팩트체크 뉴스의 경우 매개 효과를 통해 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 시각적 방식만이 동의 정도를 매개로 매체 신뢰도에 유의미한 영향을 미쳤다. 또한, 보수 단체의 주장을 검증한 팩트체크 뉴스에서는 조절된 매개 효과를 통해서 매체 신뢰도가 증가했다. 비록 제한적인 상황에서만 매체 신뢰도가 상승했지만 이와 같은 결과는 팩트체크 뉴스가 신뢰도 하락이라는 저널리즘 위기 상황을 극복할 수 있는 구체적 방안이 될 수 있음 또한 보여주는 것이다.

Abstract

Fake news, coupled with the post-truth era, is disrupting democracy and accelerating distrust in media. In this situation, ‘fact-check news,’ which verifies whether a statement is true, aims to rebuild the credibility of the media and protect democracy at large. The purpose of this study is to find out whether fact-check news, a new form of journalism, can restore the declining media credibility rating and recover the media in crisis. In this study, two of the characteristics of fact-check news distinct from general news were derived: The judgment presentation method (implicit method vs explicit method vs visual method) and the clarity of the judgment (mostly false vs false). We empirically analyzed through what mechanism these two characteristics could affect the credibility recovery of the media. The analysis showed that the media credibility rating did not increase just because the audiences were exposed to the fact-check news. The media credibility rating was found to increase through the mediated effect in the case of fact-check news that verified the claims of a politician. In other words, only the visual method had a significant effect on media credibility rating by mediating the extent of agreement. In addition, in the case of fact-check news, which verified the claim of a conservative group, media credibility rating increased through a moderated mediation effect. Although media credibility rating has risen only in limited circumstances, these results show that fact-check news may be a concrete way to overcome the crisis of declining credibility in journalism.


Keywords: fact-check news, media credibility rating, journalism, mediation effect
키워드: 저널리즘, 팩트체크 뉴스, 미디어 신뢰도, 매개효과

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Institute of Communication Research, Seoul National University in 2021 and modified and reorganized part of the researcher’s doctoral thesis in the Department of Communication, Seoul National University in 2020 (NRF-2018 S1A5B8070398) (이 연구는 2021년 서울대학교 언론정보연구소 연구기금의 지원을 받았으며 (NRF-2018 S1A5B8070398), 연구자의 2020년도 서울대학교 언론정보학과 박사학위 논문의 일부를 수정, 재구성한 것입니다.


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