Current issue

The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 4, pp.106-147
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2021
Received 12 Feb 2021 Revised 16 Jul 2021 Accepted 30 Jul 2021
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.4.003

공중의 연령과 정치 성향이 코로나19 위험 인식, 위험 정보의 탐색 처리, 정부의 재난 대응 평가에 미치는 영향 : RISP 모델의 적용
조영리** ; 김수연***
**서울특별시보건환경연구원 연구지원부 주무관
***서강대학교 지식융합미디어학부 부교수

How Public‘s Age and Political Orientation Affect COVID-19 Risk Perceptions, Risk Information Seeking and Processing, and Evaluation of Government's Response to COVID-19
Young-Lee Cho** ; Soo-Yeon Kim***
**Assistant Officer, Seoul Public Health and Environment Research Institute (shy1533@seoul.go.kr)
***Associate Professor, School of Media, Arts, and Science, Sogang University, corresponding author (sooyk@sogang.ac.kr)

초록

이 연구는 국내 코로나19의 확산과 함께 정치, 세대와 같은 기존의 사회적 갈등에 주목하여, RISP 모델을 적용하여 공중의 연령과 정치 성향, 코로나19 위험 인식이 코로나19 위험커뮤니케이션 정보의 탐색 처리와 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 이를 위해 2020년 11월, 리서치 회사 패널인 20대 107명, 40대 107명, 60대 111명 총 325명을 대상으로 설문을 실시하였는데, 20대의 코로나19 위험 인식이 높게 나타난 반면 60대의 위험 인식은 낮게 나타나 두 연령대 간 유의미한 차이가 확인되었다. 그러나 20대, 40대, 60대 응답자들의 정치 성향은 모두 중도적으로 나타나 유의미한 차이가 없었고, 정치 성향은 위험 인식에 유의미한 영향을 미치지 않았지만, 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에만 영향을 미쳐, 정치 성향이 진보적일수록 정부의 코로나19 대응을 긍정적으로 평가하는 것으로 나타났다. 코로나19 위험 인식은 정보 탐색과 체계적 처리에는 긍정적으로 영향을 미쳤고, 주변적 처리에는 부정적으로 영향을 미쳤지만 정보 회피와는 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않았다. 코로나19 정보의 체계적 처리는 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 긍정적으로 영향을 미쳤지만, 정보 탐색은 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가와 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않았다. 공중의 코로나19 위험 인식의 위험 정보 탐색과 처리를 통한 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 대한 간접 효과는 유의미하게 나타났다. 위험 인식이 높을수록 위험 정보에 대한 탐색과 처리를 하여 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에까지 긍정적으로 영향을 미침이 나타났다. 이 연구는 공중의 인구통계학적 특징인 연령과 사회문화적 특징인 정치 성향이 그들의 코로나19라는 신종 감염병에 대한 위험 인식, 위험 정보의 탐색과 처리, 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가까지 미치는 영향을 RISP모델을 적용하여 알아보았다는 데 그 의의가 있다.

Abstract

This study investigates existing social and political conflicts based on generational gaps in understanding the domestic spread of COVID-19. It attempts to examine the effects of public’s age, political orientation, and COVID-19 risk perceptions on their attitudes towards COVID-19 risk communication information seeking and processing, as well as their evaluation of the government’s response to COVID-19 by applying the RISP model. The survey was conducted in November 2020 with 107 respondents categorized as young (in their 20s), 107 categorized as middle-aged (in their 40s), and 111 categorized as elderly (in their 60s) using panel data from a research firm in Korea. Respondents' age affected their risk perceptions negatively. It meant that respondents in their 20s showed significantly higher COVID-19 risk perceptions than did respondents in their 60s. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among the various age groups in terms of their political orientation, COVID-19 risk communication information seeking and processing, or evaluation of the government’s response to COVID-19. This indicates that Korean publics seek and process COVID-19 risk communication information actively and evaluate the government’s response to COVID-19 somewhat positively regardless of age. While respondents' political orientation did not significantly affect COVID-19 risk perceptions, it affected their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19. Those who were ‘progressive’ in political orientation were more likely to support the government’s response to COVID-19 positively. The COVID-19 risk perceptions of respondents significantly affected their information seeking and systematic processing positively, while it impacted their heuristic processing negatively. Respondents' risk perceptions did not show any significant relationships with information avoidance. It meant that high risk and unprecedented changes in daily life due to the COVID-19 hardly made publics avoid COVID-19 information. While respondents' systematic processing significantly had a positive relationship with their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19, their information seeking did not show any significant relationships with their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19. Respondents' risk perceptions indirectly affected their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19 positively through information seeking and processing. Particularly, the results of this study emphasized the significance of high-risk perceptions of young publics in their 20s, and risk communication for them should be well-planned and targeted to alleviate their high-risk perceptions. This study is meaningful in that it attempted to apply RISP model to understand how public's age and political orientation affect COVID-19 risk perceptions, information seeking and processing, and their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19.


Keywords: Risk communication, COVID-19, Age, Political orientation, RISP model
키워드: 위험 커뮤니케이션, 코로나19, 연령, 정치성향, RISP 모델

Acknowledgments

This study was revised and supplemented based on the master's thesis of Sogang University Graduate School of Journalism in 2021(이 논문은 주저자의 2021년도 서강대학교 언론대학원 석사학위 논문(광고홍보 전공)을 바탕으로 수정, 보완되었습니다).


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