Current issue

The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 4

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 4, pp.106-147
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Aug 2021
Received 12 Feb 2021 Revised 16 Jul 2021 Accepted 30 Jul 2021

공중의 연령과 정치 성향이 코로나19 위험 인식, 위험 정보의 탐색 처리, 정부의 재난 대응 평가에 미치는 영향 : RISP 모델의 적용
조영리** ; 김수연***
**서울특별시보건환경연구원 연구지원부 주무관
***서강대학교 지식융합미디어학부 부교수

How Public‘s Age and Political Orientation Affect COVID-19 Risk Perceptions, Risk Information Seeking and Processing, and Evaluation of Government's Response to COVID-19
Young-Lee Cho** ; Soo-Yeon Kim***
**Assistant Officer, Seoul Public Health and Environment Research Institute (
***Associate Professor, School of Media, Arts, and Science, Sogang University, corresponding author (


이 연구는 국내 코로나19의 확산과 함께 정치, 세대와 같은 기존의 사회적 갈등에 주목하여, RISP 모델을 적용하여 공중의 연령과 정치 성향, 코로나19 위험 인식이 코로나19 위험커뮤니케이션 정보의 탐색 처리와 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 미치는 영향을 알아보았다. 이를 위해 2020년 11월, 리서치 회사 패널인 20대 107명, 40대 107명, 60대 111명 총 325명을 대상으로 설문을 실시하였는데, 20대의 코로나19 위험 인식이 높게 나타난 반면 60대의 위험 인식은 낮게 나타나 두 연령대 간 유의미한 차이가 확인되었다. 그러나 20대, 40대, 60대 응답자들의 정치 성향은 모두 중도적으로 나타나 유의미한 차이가 없었고, 정치 성향은 위험 인식에 유의미한 영향을 미치지 않았지만, 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에만 영향을 미쳐, 정치 성향이 진보적일수록 정부의 코로나19 대응을 긍정적으로 평가하는 것으로 나타났다. 코로나19 위험 인식은 정보 탐색과 체계적 처리에는 긍정적으로 영향을 미쳤고, 주변적 처리에는 부정적으로 영향을 미쳤지만 정보 회피와는 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않았다. 코로나19 정보의 체계적 처리는 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 긍정적으로 영향을 미쳤지만, 정보 탐색은 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가와 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않았다. 공중의 코로나19 위험 인식의 위험 정보 탐색과 처리를 통한 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에 대한 간접 효과는 유의미하게 나타났다. 위험 인식이 높을수록 위험 정보에 대한 탐색과 처리를 하여 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가에까지 긍정적으로 영향을 미침이 나타났다. 이 연구는 공중의 인구통계학적 특징인 연령과 사회문화적 특징인 정치 성향이 그들의 코로나19라는 신종 감염병에 대한 위험 인식, 위험 정보의 탐색과 처리, 정부의 코로나19 재난 대응 평가까지 미치는 영향을 RISP모델을 적용하여 알아보았다는 데 그 의의가 있다.


This study investigates existing social and political conflicts based on generational gaps in understanding the domestic spread of COVID-19. It attempts to examine the effects of public’s age, political orientation, and COVID-19 risk perceptions on their attitudes towards COVID-19 risk communication information seeking and processing, as well as their evaluation of the government’s response to COVID-19 by applying the RISP model. The survey was conducted in November 2020 with 107 respondents categorized as young (in their 20s), 107 categorized as middle-aged (in their 40s), and 111 categorized as elderly (in their 60s) using panel data from a research firm in Korea. Respondents' age affected their risk perceptions negatively. It meant that respondents in their 20s showed significantly higher COVID-19 risk perceptions than did respondents in their 60s. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences among the various age groups in terms of their political orientation, COVID-19 risk communication information seeking and processing, or evaluation of the government’s response to COVID-19. This indicates that Korean publics seek and process COVID-19 risk communication information actively and evaluate the government’s response to COVID-19 somewhat positively regardless of age. While respondents' political orientation did not significantly affect COVID-19 risk perceptions, it affected their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19. Those who were ‘progressive’ in political orientation were more likely to support the government’s response to COVID-19 positively. The COVID-19 risk perceptions of respondents significantly affected their information seeking and systematic processing positively, while it impacted their heuristic processing negatively. Respondents' risk perceptions did not show any significant relationships with information avoidance. It meant that high risk and unprecedented changes in daily life due to the COVID-19 hardly made publics avoid COVID-19 information. While respondents' systematic processing significantly had a positive relationship with their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19, their information seeking did not show any significant relationships with their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19. Respondents' risk perceptions indirectly affected their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19 positively through information seeking and processing. Particularly, the results of this study emphasized the significance of high-risk perceptions of young publics in their 20s, and risk communication for them should be well-planned and targeted to alleviate their high-risk perceptions. This study is meaningful in that it attempted to apply RISP model to understand how public's age and political orientation affect COVID-19 risk perceptions, information seeking and processing, and their evaluation of government's response to COVID-19.

Keywords: Risk communication, COVID-19, Age, Political orientation, RISP model
키워드: 위험 커뮤니케이션, 코로나19, 연령, 정치성향, RISP 모델


This study was revised and supplemented based on the master's thesis of Sogang University Graduate School of Journalism in 2021(이 논문은 주저자의 2021년도 서강대학교 언론대학원 석사학위 논문(광고홍보 전공)을 바탕으로 수정, 보완되었습니다).

1. Ahn, H. J., Lee, M. J. & Jung, T. Y. (2012). Differences in attitudes toward society and politics between liberals and conservatives. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues,19(4), 529-552.
2. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
3. Barbour, J. B., Rintamaki, L. S., Ramsey, J. A., & Brashers, D. E. (2012). Avoiding health information. Journal of health communication, 17(2), 212-229.
4. Barrios, J. M., & Hochberg, Y. (2020). Risk perception through the lens of politics in the time of the covid-19 pandemic (No. w27008). National Bureau of Economic Research.
5. Bruine de Bruin, W. (2020). Age differences in COVID-19 risk perceptions and mental health: Evidence from a national US survey conducted in March 2020. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B.
6. Cha, Y., & Cho, J. (2019). A social-cognitive model of applying RISP and HBM model for Korean internet users’ behavioral intentions regarding fine-dust risk protection : The role of information exposure, subjective norms, negative emotions, and risk perception. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 63(6), 96-142.
7. Cho, K. D., & Kim, J. B. (2018). The effects of fairness Korea on social, economic, and political risk perception : A study on the interaction effect of generation divisions. The Journal of Social Science, 25(4), 192-224.
8. Choi, C., & Choi, S. (2018). A study on ideological terrain and policy preferences of Korean people. Journal of Governmental Studies, 24(1), 157-191.
9. Choi, Y. J., & Choi, S. B. (2013). Generational boundaries from the perspective of political attitudes-preliminary study for the possibility of political generations. Ewha Journal of Social Sciences, 29(2), 159-201.
10. Douglas, M., & Wildavsky, A. (1983). Risk and culture: An essay on the selection of technological and environmental dangers. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
11. Dryhurst, S., Schneider, C. R., Kerr, J., Freeman, A. L., Recchia, G., Van Der Bles, A. M., ... & van der Linden, S. (2020). Risk perceptions of COVID-19 around the world. Journal of Risk Research, 1-13.
12. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. New York. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
13. Fischer, A., & Glenk, K. (2011). One model fits all? On the moderating role of emotional engagement and confusion in the elicitation of preferences for climate change adaptation policies. Ecological Economics, 70(6), 1178–1188.
14. Flynn, J., Slovic, P., & Mertz, C. K. (1994). Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Analysis, 14(6), 1101-1108.
15. Gerhold, L. (2020). COVID-19: Risk perception and coping strategies. Retrieved 24/9/20 from
16. Griffin, R. J., Dunwoody, S., & Neuwirth, K. (1999). Proposed model of the relationship of risk information seeking and processing to the development of preventive behaviors. Environmental Research, 80(2), S230-S245.
17. Griffin, R. J., Neuwirth, K., Dunwoody, S., & Giese, J. (2004). Information sufficiency and risk communication. Media Psychology, 6(1), 23-61.
18. Griffin, R. J., Yang, Z., ter Huurne, E., Boerner, F., Ortz, S., & Dunwoody, S. (2008). After the flood: Anger, attribution, and the seeking of information. Science Communication, 29, 285ᐨ315.
19. Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications from the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty, information management, and disclosure decisions (pp. 45–66). New York, NY: Routledge.
20. Honarvar, B., Lankarani, K. B., Kharmandar, A., Shaygani, F., Zahedroozgar, M., Haghighi, M. R. R., ... & Hashemi, S. M. (2020). Knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, and practices of adults toward COVID-19: A population and field-based study from Iran. International Journal of Public Health, 65(6), 731-739.
21. Huang, J., & Yang, Z. J. (2018). Risk, affect, and policy support: public perception of air pollution in China. Asian Journal of Communication, 28(3), 281-297.
22. Huh, S., & Kim, Y. (2015). A comparative study on the application of RISP in the context of risk types: Focusing on typhoon and hydrofluoric acid spill risks. Korean Journal of Communication & Information, 70, 246-276.
23. Hwang, S.-Y. (2020, March 23). 81% of people in Busan "feeling anxious about the spread of COVID-19"... A huge influence on ordinary life. JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
24. Inbar, Y., Pizarro, D. A., & Bloom, P. (2009). Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals. Cognition and Emotion, 23(4), 714-725.
25. Janz, N. K., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The health belief model: A decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 11(1), 1-47.
26. Jo, S., Shin, H., Yoo, S., & Roh, H. (2012). The study of factors affecting tuberculosis preventive behavior intentions : An extension of HBM with mediating effects of self-efficacy and fear. Journal of Public Relations, 16(1), 148-177.
27. Jung, J., Lee, J., Cho, B., Ku, H., Ahn, J., Jang, D., Go, H. & Jang, S. (2010). Risk society, risk politics. Seoul: SNU PRESS.
28. Kahlor, L. A., Dunwoody, S., Griffin, R. J., Neuwirth, K., & Giese, J. (2003). Studying heuristic-systematic processing of risk communication. Risk Analysis, 23, 355ᐨ368.
29. Khaltar, O., Kim, T. H., & Moon, M. J. (2019). A study on the risk society and future government capacity: Focusing on the impact of government agility, managerial capacity, and trust in government on risk perception. Journal of Governmental Studies, 25(1), 209-244.
30. Kim, D.-W. (2020, September 23), 'People in their twenties feeling depressed'... Twofold increased depression after the emergence of COVID-19. Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retreived 25/11/20 from
31. Kim, H. (2021). Demographic factors affecting the formation of political orientation of voters. The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 21, 12(1), 1165-1177.
32. Kim, H. (2021, December 21). Government's 'doing well' response to Covid-19 56%...same as last month. NEWS1. Retreived 26/5/21 from
33. Kim, H.-G., Park, G.-J., & Cheung, C.-S. (2018, November) Development of disaster response capability evaluation index. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Korean Society of Disaster Information. GyeongGi-Do.
34. Kim, H. J. (2019). Roles of risk perception, fear, and anger in information behaviors about nuclear energy : Based on risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 63(2), 7-45.
35. Kim, J.-H., Oh, J.-H., Kim, T-Y., Yoo, J-G., Choi, H.-J., Lee, D-G., Kim, J.-S., & Park, W.-I. (2020). COVID-19 seen by Gyeonggi-do province. Issue & Analysis, 1-25.
36. Kim, S. H. (2020, February 17). Historical experiences influence political orientation by generation⋯ Born in the 1970s experiencing the IMF, a “progressive tendency”. Munhwa Ilbo. Retreived 25/11/20 from
37. Kim, S.-J., & Cheong, Y. G..(2017). Influence of political orientation, use of news media and political conversation on political participation attitude and behavior. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 61(5), 2017.10, 69-101.
38. Kim, Y. (2014). Risk communication. Seoul: Communication books.
39. Kim, Y., Kim, Y., & Kim, S. (2018). Risk seeking and processing on climate change: Moderating effects of perceived information gathering capacity, channel beliefs, and behavioral beliefs. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 62(5), 72-106.
40. Kim, Y. L. (2011). The structure of social risks in Korea: Are social risks democratic or hierarchical?. Discourse201, 14(3), 57-88.
41. Kim, Y., Lee, H., Lee, H., & Jang, Y. (2015, May) A study on media reports regarding the risk of fine dust on the formation of recipient's perception and view. Paper presented at the annual meeting of Korean Socitey for Jounalism and Communication Studies, Seoul.
42. Kim, Y.-T. (2012). Public attitudes toward the government expenditure and party politics. Journal of Northeast Asian Studies, 64, 259-281.
43. Ko, J. (2011). Study on the factors influencing the preventive behavioral intention of tuberculosis: Fcused on the health belief model. Sogang University, Seoul, Korea.
44. Korea Business Continuity Planning Association. (2007). Research on evaluation methods such as disaster management system. Sejong-si: National Fire Agency.
45. Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. (2021). Present status of overseas COVID-19 infections. Retrieved 29/01/21 from
46. Ku, Y., Ahn, J., & Noh, G. Y. (2020). Relationships between particulate matter risk perception, information seeking and preventive behaviors : An application of extended risk information seeking and processing model. Korean Association for Broarding & Telecommunication, 34(1), 5-28.
47. Lee, B. Kwan., Oh, H. J., Shin, K. A., & Ko, J. Y. (2008). The effect of media campaign as a cue to action on influenza prevention behavior : Extending health belief model. The Korean Journal of Advertising & Public relations, 10(4), 108-138.
48. Lee, E. H. (2020). Covid-19 the age of new infectious diseases, paradigm shift to an unfection city. Issue & Analysis, 1-28.
49. Lee, H. G., & Paek, H.-j. (2019). Effects of information insufficiency, perceived information gathering capacity, and temporal distance on people’s information seeking and avoidance about earthquake. Journal of Public Relations Research, 23(3), 84-108.
50. Lee, K., Jin, B., Choi, Y. S., & Han, J. S. (2017). The effects of types of cognitive risk perception of tuberculosis on issue salience, information-seeking, and preventive behavioral intention : The mediating role of worry. The Korean Journal of Advertising and Public Relations, 19(4), 64-107.
51. Lee, M., & You, M. (2020). Psychological and behavioral responses in South Korea during the early stages of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(9), 2977.
52. Lee, S. J. (2020a). 9th perception survey of COVID-19(Situational awareness, social distance etc) ('Public Opinion in Public Opinion' Weekly Report of Korea Research, 82-2). Seoul: Korea Research.
53. Lee, S. J. (2020b). 14th perception survey of COVID-19(Situational awareness, Trust etc) ('Public Opinion in Public Opinion' Weekly Report of Korea Research, 92-2). Seoul: Korea Research.
54. Lee, Y., & Chun, S. (2015). The impact of vote campaigns on voters’ political efficacy and vote participation : Based on political ideology perspective of young voters. Journal of Political Communication, 38, 5-39.
55. Lee, Y. A., Lee, N., & Lee, H. J. (2013). Koreans' risk perception, Seoul: Nanam.
56. Leiserowitz, A. (2006). Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77(1), 45-72.
57. Liu, Y., Keum, H., & Cho, J. (2020). The effects of customized information environments on knowledge and expression on SNS focusing on the roles of selective exposure and incidental exposure. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 64(4), 289-324.
58. Mannheim, K. (1970). The problem of generations. Psychoanalytic Review, 57(3), 378-404.
59. McComas, K. A. (2006). Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 75-91.
60. Mitchell, R. J. (1993). Path analysis: pollination. In SM Schneider & J. Gurevitch, eds. Design and analysis of ecological experiments, 211-231. NY: Chapman and Hall.
61. Narayana, G., Pradeepkumar, B., Ramaiah, J. D., Jayasree, T., Yadav, D. L., & Kumar, B. K. (2020). Knowledge, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 pandemic among general public of India: A cross-sectional online survey. Current Medicine Research and Practice, 10(4), 153-159.
62. Oh, J.-H. (2020, September 8). After the spread of Covid-19, anger and fear grew..."Psychological quarantine required." Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7/6/21 from
63. Oh, J.-H. (2020, August 31). [Exclusive] More than 20,000 'Beepers~' A 47-times explosion, Disaster text message becoming ordinary. Kookmin Daily News. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
64. Park, H.-K., & Lim, H. Y. (2021). Seoul citizens' perception of public health care according to their political orientation. SEOUL HEALTH ON AIR, 17, Seoul: Seoul Metropolitan Government Public Health and Medical Foundation.
65. Park, J.-H. (2020). A comparative study on the ‘Corona 19’ news frame based on ideological orientation of media. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 64(4), 40-85.
66. Park, S. P., & Cho, H. J. (2010). Critical appraisal of the risks of the 2009 Novel influenza and the strategies of the South Korean government to manage and treat it. Critical Social Welfare Academy, 30, 7-48.
67. Ryu, H.-S. (2020). Risk perception surrounding future hazards and communication with the public: Focusing on COVID-19 cases. Future Horizon, 6, 28-35. Seoul: Science and Technology Policy Institute.
68. Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendationsm. General psychiatry, 33(2). 1-4.
69. Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). The health belief model and preventive health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2(4), 354-386.
70. Seong, H.-J. (2020). Change and Future of Our Medical Treatment in the Post COVID-19 Era(A Joint Research by National Heulth Insurance Corporation-Korea Research) ('Public Opinion in Public Opinion' Weekly Report of Korea Research, 86-1). Seoul: Korea Research.
71. Seo, M. (2016). Effects of risk information seeking and processing on MERS preventive behaviors and moderating roles of SNS use during 2015 MERS outbreak in Korea. Korean Journal of Communication & Information, 116-140.
72. Shiina, A., Niitsu, T., Kobori, O., Idemoto, K., Hashimoto, T., Sasaki, T., ... & Iyo, M. (2020). Relationship between perception and anxiety about COVID-19 infection and risk behaviors for spreading infection: A national survey in Japan. Brain, Behavior, & Immunity-Health, 6, 100-101.
73. Sjoberg, L. (1998). World views, political attitudes and risk perception. Risk, 9, 137-152.
74. Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236(4799), 280-285.
75. Slovic, P., Flynn, J. H., & Layman, M. (1991). Perceived risk, trust, and the politics of nuclear waste. Science, 254(5038), 1603-1607.
76. Slovic, P. (1997). Trust, emotion, sex, politics, and science: Surveying the risk assessment battlefield. U. Chi. Legal F., 59.
77. Slovic, P. E. (2000). The perception of risk. London, UK: Earthscan publications.
78. Steger, M. A. E., & Witt, S. L. (1989). Gender differences in environmental orientations: A comparison of publics and activists in Canada and the US. Western Political Quarterly, 42(4), 627-649.
79. Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., & Kalof, L. (1993). Value orientations, gender, and environmental concern. Environment and Behavior, 25(5), 322-348.
80. Sun, Q.-R., Cho, M.-H. (2018). The impact on risk information search processing and information diffusion behavior of the Chinese in relation to the THAAD placement in Korea. Korean Business Education Review, 33(2), 2018.4, 329-351.
81. Taylor‐Gooby, P. (2001). Risk, contingency and the third way: Evidence from the BHPS and qualitative studies. Social Policy & Administration, 35(2), 195-211.
82. Trumbo, C. W. (2002). Information processing and risk perception: An adaptation of the heuristic-systematic model. Journal of Communication, 52(2), 367-382.
83. Wei, J., Zhao, M., Wang, F., Cheng, P., & Zhao, D. (2016). An empirical study of the Volkswagen crisis in China. Risk Analysis, 36(1), 114-129.
84. Wi, Y.-S. (2020, September 21). 'COVID-19' perceived by people living in Jeju... "Crisis + Anxiety". The Halla Ilbo. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
85. Woo, J.-P. (2012). Concept and understanding of professor Woo Jong-pil's structural equationmodel. Seoul: Hannarae.
86. Yang, Z. J., Aloe, A. M., & Feeley, T. H. (2014a). Risk information seeking and processing model: A meta-analysis. Journal of Communication, 64(1), 20–41.
87. Yang, Z. J., L. N. Rickard, Harrison, T. M. & Seo, M. (2014b). Applying the Risk Information Seeking and Processing (RISP) model to examine support for climate change mitigation policy. Science Communication, 36(3), 296-324.
88. Yoo, S. J., Jeong, H. J., & Park, H. S. (2010). The analysis on factors affecting the intention for H1N1 virus vaccination and the impact of negative news reports the comparison between HBM and TPB. The Korean Journal of Advertising and Public Relations, 12(3), 2010.7, 283-319.
89. Yoon, H.-W. (2020, October 24). Single-hearted devotion to the Democratic Party' among people in their forties from X generation. Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
90. Yoo, S.-I. (2020, February 21). People who are politically 'conservative' have a higher level of COVID-19 risk perception... A fall in trust in media. KUKINEWS. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
91. Zhang, H., Park, J., & Lee, K. (2020). A study of factors affecting preventive behavior intentions of overseas infectious disease based on health belief model : Focusing on the moderating effects of SNS eWOM. The Korean Journal of Advertising & Public Relations, 22(2), 265-302.

1. 고지하나 (2011). <결핵예방 행동의도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구 : 건강신념모델을 중심으로>. 서강대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.
2. 구윤희·안지수·노기영 (2020). 미세먼지 위험인식이 위험정보 처리와 예방행동에 미치는 영향: 확장된 위험정보 탐색처리 모형의 적용. <한국방송학보>, 34권 1호, 5-28.
3. 김영란 (2011). 한국의 사회적 위험구조-위험의 민주화 또는 위험의 계급화?. <담론201>, 14권 3호, 57-88.
4. 김도우 (2020, 9, 23). ‘20대는 현재 우울해’⋯코로나19 이후 두배 증가. <경향신문>, Retreived 25/11/20 from
5. 김영욱 (2014). <위험 커뮤니케이션> 서울: 커뮤니케이션북스.
6. 김영욱·김영지·김수현 (2018). 기후변화에 대한 위험 정보 추구 및 처리 연구: 정보원 신뢰도, 행동에 대한 태도, 인지된 정보 수집 능력의 조절효과 중심. <한국언론학보>, 62권 5호, 72-106.
7. 김영욱·이현승·이혜진·장유진 (2015. 5월). <미세먼지 위험에 대한 언론보도가 수용자의 인식과 의견 형성에 관한 연구>. 한국언론학회 2015년 봄철 정기학술대회. 서울.
8. 김영태 (2012). 정부의 공공지출에 대한 태도와 정당정치. <한국동북아논총>, 64권, 259-281.
9. 김석호 (2020, 2, 17). 역사적 경험이 세대별 정치성향 좌우⋯ IMF 겪은 1970년대생 ‘진보성향’. <문화일보>. Retreived 25/11/20 from
10. 김수정·정연구 (2017). 정치성향, 뉴스 미디어 이용, 정치대화가 정치참여 태도와 행위에 미치는 영향. 한국언론학보, 61(5), 69 - 101.
11. 김정훈·오재호·김태영·유정균·최혜진·이다겸·김재신·박원익 (2020). 경기도민이 바라본 코로나19. 이슈&진단, 1-25
12. 김학량 (2021). 유권자의 정치성향 형성에 영향을 미친 인구통계학적 변수. 인문사회 21, 12(1), 1165-1177.
13. 김향기·박길주·정종수 (2018. 11월). <재난대응 역량 평가지표 개발>. 한국재난정보학회 2018년 정기학술대회 및 특별세미나, 경기도.
14. 김현 (2021, 1, 21). 정부 코로나19 대응 '잘하고 있다' 56%⋯전달과 동일. <뉴스1>, Retreived 26/5/21 from
15. 김효정 (2019). 위험인식, 두려움, 분노가 원자력정보 탐색과 처리, 공유 의도에 미치는 영향: 위험정보탐색처리(Risk Information Seeking and Processing) 모델을 중심으로. <한국언론학보>, 63권 2호, 7-45.
16. 박상표·조홍준 (2010). 2009 신종플루의 위험성과 한국 정부의 대응에 대한 비판적 평가. <상황과 복지>, 30호 7-48.
17. 박주현 (2020). 언론의 이념성향에 따른 ‘코로나 19’보도 프레임 비교 연구. <한국언론학보>, 64권 4호, 40-85.
18. 박현경·임희영 (2021). 정치성향에 따른 서울시민의 공공의료 인식, <SEOUL HEALTH ON AIR 건강정책동향> 제17호. 서울: 서울특별시 공공보건의료재단.
19. 류현숙 (2020). 미래위험을 둘러싼 위험인식과 대국민 소통 : 코로나19 사례를 중심으로. <FUTURE HORIZON>, 6월호, 28-35. 서울: 과학기술정책연구원.
20. 서미혜 (2016). 메르스 관련 위험정보 탐색과 처리가 메르스 예방행동에 미치는 영향: 위험정보 탐색처리 모형의 확장과 SNS 이용 정도에 따른 조절효과를 중심으로. <한국언론정보학보>, 78호, 116-140.
21. 성현정 (2020). <포스트코로나시대, 우리 의료의 변화와 미래(국민건강보험공단-한국리서치 공동기획 조사)> (‘여론속의여론’ 주간리포트 86-1). 서울: 한국리서치.
22. 순치엔롱·조미혜 (2018). 한국의 사드 배치와 관련한 중국인들의 위험 정보 탐색 처리 및 정보 확산 행동에 미치는 영향. <경영교육연구>, 33(2), 329-351.
23. 안혜정·이민주·정태연 (2012). 한국 사회와 정부에 대한 태도에서 진보보수 집단 간 차이. <한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제>, 19권 4호, 529-552.
24. 오주현. (2020, 9, 8). 코로나19 재확산 이후 분노·공포 커졌다⋯“심리방역 필요”. <연합뉴스>. Retrieved 07/6/21 from
25. 오주환 (2020, 8, 31). [단독] 2만번 넘게 ‘삐삐~’ 47배 폭증, 일상이 된 재난문자. <국민일보>. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
26. 우종필 (2012). <우종필 교수의 구조방정식모델 개념과 이해>. 서울: 한나래.
27. 위영석 (2020, 9, 21). 제주도민에게 ‘코로나19’란.. “위기+두려움”. <한라일보>. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
28. 유연·금희조·조재호 (2020). 이용자의 정보 환경 맞춤화가 시사 지식과 SNS 상의 의견 표현에 미치는 영향: 정치 성향에 따른 선택적 노출과 우연적 이견 노출의 역할을 중심으로. <한국언론학보>, 64권 4호, 289-324.
29. 유석조·정현주·박현순 (2010). 신종 인플루엔자 예방 접종 의도에 대한 영향요인들 및 백신 부작용 보도의 영향 분석 건강신념모델과 계획된 행동 이론 간 비교. <한국광고홍보학보>, 12(3), 283-319.
30. 유수인 (2020, 2, 21). 정치 ‘보수’ 성향일수록 코로나 위험 인식 ↑⋯언론 신뢰 떨어져. <쿠키뉴스>. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
31. 윤호우 (2020, 10, 24). X세대였던 40대, ‘일편단심 민주당’. <경향신문>. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
32. 이경진·진범섭·최유석·한정석 (2017). 결핵에 대한 인지적 위험 인식 유형이 이슈 부각 인식, 정보 추구 의도, 예방 행위 의도에 미치는 영향: 걱정의 매개 효과를 중심으로. <한국광고홍보학보>, 19(4), 64-107.
33. 이병관·오현정·신경아·고재영 (2008). 행위단서로서의 미디어 캠페인이 인플루엔자 예방행동에 미치는 영향: 건강신념모델의 확장을 중심으로. <한국광고홍보학보>, 10권 4호, 108-138.
34. 이영애·이나경·이현주 (2013). <한국인의 위험 지각>, 서울: 나남.
35. 이영화·전승우 (2015). 투표 참여 독려 광고가 유권자의 정치효능감과 투표 참여에 미치는 영향 -정치적 이념성향에 따른 대학생들의 투표 참여 행위를 중심으로. <정치커뮤니케이션 연구>, 38, 5-39.
36. 이은환 (2020). 코로나19 신종감염병의 시대, 감염차단도시(Unfection City)로의 패러다임 전환. 이슈&진단, 1-28.
37. 이승진 (2020a). <기획: 코로나19 9차 인식조사(상황인식, 생활 속 거리두기 등)> (‘여론속의여론’ 한국리서치 주간리포트, 82-2). 서울: 한국리서치.
38. 이승진 (2020b). <기획: 코로나19 14차 인식조사(상황인식, 공적주체 신뢰도 등)> (‘여론속의여론’ 한국리서치 주간리포트, 92-2). 서울: 한국리서치.
39. 이혜규‧백혜진 (2019). 정보 불충분성, 정보 수집 능력, 시간적 거리가 지진에 관한 정보 추구 및 회피에 미치는 영향. <홍보학 연구>, 23권 3호, 84-108.
40. 장해·박주식·이경식 (2020). 건강신념모델을 적용한 해외 감염병 예방 행동의도의 영향요인에 관한 연구: 외적 행위단서로서의 SNS 구전의 조절효과를 중심으로. <한국광고홍보학보>, 22권 2호, 265-302.
41. 정진성·이재열·조병희·구혜란·안정옥·장덕진·고형면·장상철 (2010). <위험사회, 위험정치>, 서울: 서울대학교출판문화원.
42. 조광덕·김중백 (2018). 한국사회의 공정성이 사회경제정치 위험인식에 미치는 영향. <사회과학연구>, 25권 4호, 192-224.
43. 조성은·신호창·유선욱·노형신 (2012). 결핵예방 행동의도에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구-자기효능감과 공포의 매개역할을 중심으로 한 건강신념모델의 확장. <홍보학 연구>, 16권 1호, 148-177.
44. 질병관리청 (2021) 코로나바이러스감염증-19 국외발생현황. Retrieved 29/01/21 from
45. 차유리·조재희 (2019). 국내 인터넷 이용자의 미세먼지 위험 예방행위 의도에 관한 사회인지 접근의 RISP, HBM 적용모형: 정보 노출, 주관적 규범, 부정적 감정, 위험 지각의 역할. <한국언론학보>, 63권 6호, 96-142.
46. 최유정·최샛별 (2013). 연령대별 세대 의식과 정치적 태도를 통해 본 세대의 경계: 정치적 세대의 가능성에 관한 시론. <사회과학연구논총>, 29권 2호, 159-201.
47. 최창용·최슬기 (2018). 한국인의 이념지형과 정책선호. <정부학연구>, 24권 1호, 157-191.
48. 한국비시피협회 (2007). <재난관리체계 등의 평가방법 연구>. 세종시: 소방방재청.
49. 할타르 어뜨후·김태형·문명재 (2019). 위험사회와 미래정부의 역량: 정부의 민첩성, 관리역량, 그리고 정부신뢰가 위험인식에 미치는 영향을 중심으로. <정부학연구>, 25권 1호, 209-244.
50. 황선윤 (2020, 3, 23). 부산시민 81% “코로나 19 확산에 두려움 느껴”⋯일상생활에도 큰 영향 받아. <중앙일보>. Retrieved 25/11/20 from
51. 허서현‧김영욱 (2015). 위험 유형에 따른 위험 정보 탐색과 처리 과정 연구: 불산 유출과 태풍 관련 위험 상황 비교 중심. <한국언론정보학보>, 246-276.