Current issue

The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 5

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 5, pp.171-209
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Oct 2021
Received 05 Feb 2021 Revised 28 Sep 2021 Accepted 07 Oct 2021
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.5.005

청소년들의 온라인 게임 이용에 따른 성차별 및 성역할 고정관념 인식과 성역할 순응의도 : 롤플레잉 게임과 1인칭 슈팅게임 이용자들의 경험을 중심으로
오현정**
**차의과학대학교 의료홍보미디어학과 조교수 (hyoh@cha.ac.kr)

Adolescents’ Experience of Sexism and Gender Stereotypes in Online Game Environment
Hyun Jung Oh**
**Assistant Professor, Department of Health & Strategic Communication, CHA University (hyoh@cha.ac.kr)
Funding Information ▼

초록

본 연구는 청소년들의 온라인 게임 이용이 그들의 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의 인식, 그리고 성역할 순응의도에 미치는 영향력을 규명하기 위해 실시되었다. 보다 구체적으로는 온라인 게임에서의 성역할 및 성차별주의 인식이 현실 사회에서의 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의, 그리고 성역할 순응의도에 미치는 영향력을 경로모형을 통해 규명하였다. 온라인 서베이를 활용하여 500명의 청소년들을 대상으로 진행한 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 먼저 청소년들의 온라인 게임 내 성차별의 경험은 그들의 게임 내 성차별주의 인식에 유의미한 영향을 주었으며, 게임 내 성차별주의 인식은 게임 내 성역할 순응의도를 증가시켰다. 한편 게임 내 성역할 고정관념은 게임 내 성차별주의와 성역할 순응의도에 유의미한 영향을 주었다. 그리고 청소년들의 온라인 게임 내 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의, 성역할 순응행동은 현실에도 반영되어 현실사회에서의 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의, 그리고 성역할 순응의도를 강화시켰다. 또한 성별에 따른 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의, 성역할 순응의도의 차이가 나타났다. 본 연구는 온라인 게임 환경이 청소년들의 성역할 발달과 성역할 고정관념 내면화에 미치는 영향력 및 그 과정을 규명하였다는 점에서 의의를 갖는다.

Abstract

The present study examines how adolescent online game players develop gender-role identity, and how their experience of sexism in online game environment influences their perception and internalization of sexism and gender stereotypes. The results of an online survey conducted from 500 adolescent participants show that adolescents’ experience of sexism in the online game significantly influenced their sexist attitude, which then enhanced their intention to comply with gender stereotypes in the game. Gender stereotypes in the online game significantly influenced sexism and gender-role compliance in the game. Adolescents’ gender-based perceptions and behavioral intentions in the game were closely linked with their perceptions and behavioral intentions in real world. This study also found that male and female adolescents have different perceptions of sexism and gender-role stereotypes, and varying levels of intentions to comply with gender stereotypes. The findings from this study contribute to advancing our knowledge on how online game environment influences the process of adolescents’ development of gender identity and internalization of gender stereotypes.


Keywords: Adolescent, Online Game, Gender Stereotype, Sexism, Gender Stereotype Compliance
키워드: 청소년, 온라인 게임, 성역할 고정관념, 성차별주의, 성역할 순응

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea, NRF-2019S1A5A8034072 (이 논문은 2019년 대한민국 교육부와 한국연구재단의 인문사회분야 신진연구자지원사업의 지원을 받아 수행된 연구임, NRF-2019S1A5A8034072).


References
1. Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(6), 589-595.
2. Beasley, B., & Collins Standley, T. (2002). Shirts vs. skins: Clothing as an indicator of gender role stereotyping in video games. Mass Communication & Society, 5(3), 279-293.
3. Behm-Morawitz, E., & Mastro, D. (2009). The effects of the sexualization of female video game characters on gender stereotyping and female self-concept. Sex Roles, 61(11-12), 808-823.
4. Bem, S. L. 1974. The Measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.
5. Berger, J., FIsek, H., Norman, R., & Zelditch, M. (1977). Status characteristics and social interaction. New York, NY: Elsevier.
6. Bertozzi, E. (2008). ‘You Play Like a Girl!’ Cross-gender competition and the uneven playing field. Convergence, 14(4), 473-487.
7. Braithwaite, A. (2014). ‘Seriously, get out’: Feminists on the forums and the War (craft) on women. New Media & Society, 16(5), 703-718.
8. Brehm, A. (2013). Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: Gender in World of Warcraft. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 903.
9. Bryce, J., & Rutter, J. (2003). Gender dynamics and the social and spatial organization of computer gaming. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 1-15.
10. Burgess, M. C., Stermer, S. P., & Burgess, S. R. (2007). Sex, lies, and video games: The portrayal of male and female characters on video game covers. Sex Roles, 57(5-6), 419-433.
11. Burn, S. M. 1996. The social psychology of gender. N. Y. Mc Graw-Hill.
12. Cook, E. P. 1985. Psychological androgyny. New York: Pergamon Press.
13. Curun, F., Taysi, E. ve Orcan, F. (2017). Ambivalent sexism as a mediator for sex role orientation and gender stereotypes in romantic relationships: a study in Turkey. Interpersona: An International Journal on Personal Relationships. 11(1), 55-69.
14. Dill, K. E., Brown, B. P., & Collins, M. A. (2008). Effects of exposure to sex-stereotyped video game characters on tolerance of sexual harassment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1402-1408.
15. Dill, K. E., & Thill, K. P. (2007). Video game characters and the socialization of gender roles: Young people’s perceptions mirror sexist media depictions. Sex Roles, 57(11-12), 851-864.
16. Dohnt, H., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The contribution of peer and media influences to the development of body satisfaction and self-esteem in young girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 929.
17. Eklund, L. (2011). Doing gender in cyberspace: The performance of gender by female World of Warcraft players. Convergence, 17(3), 323-342.
18. Fox, J., & Potocki, B. (2016). Lifetime video game consumption, interpersonal aggression, hostile sexism, and rape myth acceptance: A cultivation perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(10), 1912-1931.
19. Fox, J., Ralston, R. A., Cooper, C. K., & Jones, K. A. (2015). Sexualized avatars lead to women’s self-objectification and acceptance of rape myths. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(3), 349-362.
20. Fox, J., & Tang, W. Y. (2014). Sexism in online video games: The role of conformity to masculine norms and social dominance orientation. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 314-320.
21. Gerbner, G. (1998). Cultivation analysis: An overview. Mass communication and society, 1(3-4), 175-194.
22. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 491-512.
23. Gale-Ross, R., Baird, A., & Towson, S. (2009). Gender role, life satisfaction, and wellness: androgyny in a southwestern Ontario sample. Canadian Journal on Aging, 28(2), 135-146.
24. Gray, K. L. (2012). Deviant bodies, stigmatized identities, and racist acts: Examining the experiences of African-American gamers in Xbox Live. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 18(4), 261-276.
25. Herring, S. C. (1999). The rhetorical dynamics of gender harassment on-line. The Information Society, 15(3), 151-167.
26. Ivory, A. H., Fox, J., Waddell, T. F., & Ivory, J. D. (2014). Sex role stereotyping is hard to kill: A field experiment measuring social responses to user characteristics and behavior in an online multiplayer first-person shooter game. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 148-156.
27. Jansz, J. (2005). The emotional appeal of violent video games for adolescent males. Communication theory, 15(3), 219-241.
28. Jeon, K. R. (2007). Mobility and playability: A study on the female mobile phone garners. Korean Journal of Broadcasting, 21(6), 536-573.
29. Jost, J. T., & Kay, A. C. (2005). Exposure to benevolent sexism and complementary gender stereotypes: consequences for specific and diffuse forms of system justification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(3), 498.
30. Kendall, L. (2000). “Oh no! I'm a nerd!” Hegemonic masculinity on an online forum. Gender & Society, 14(2), 256-274.
31. Kim, M. H., & Hwang, B. Y. (2016, May 25). Teen learn to hate women through ‘Ilbe-nori’. Hankyoreh. Retrieved from http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/745322.html
32. Kim, H. R. (2006). Developing adolescents gender-role identity scale. Social Research, 7, 135-152.
33. Kim, J., & Park, H. S. (2011). The effect of uniform virtual appearance on conformity intention: Social identity model of deindividuation effects and optimal distinctiveness theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1223-1230.
34. King, W. C., Miles, E. W., & Kniska, J. (1991). Boys will be boys (and girls will be girls): The attribution of gender role stereotypes in a gaming situation. Sex roles, 25(11-12), 607-623.
35. Kobach, M. J., & Potter, R. F. (2013). The role of mediated sports programming on implicit racial stereotypes. Sport in Society, 16(10), 1414-1428.
36. Korea Creative Content Agency. (2017). Trend Research of Game Users in 2017.
37. Kuznekoff, J. H., & Rose, L. M. (2013). Communication in multiplayer gaming: Examining player responses to gender cues. New Media & Society, 15(4), 541-556.
38. Kwak, S. G., Cho, H. S., & Yoon, H. G. (2005). The perceived experiences of gender-role development and conflicts at each life stage. Journal of Korean Women’s Studies, 21(2), 147-179.
39. Lea, M., & Spears, R. (1991). Computer-mediated communication, de-individuation and group decision-making. International journal of man-machine studies, 34(2), 283-301.
40. Lee, J. H. (2008). A study on female adolescents' gender role identity according to home environmental variables. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 19(3), 450-458.
41. Lee, K. J. (2020). Trend of academic research on youth game users. Social Welfare Policy, 47(2), 175-201.
42. Lee, M. J., Bichard, S. L., Irey, M. S., Walt, H. M., & Carlson, A. J. (2009). Television viewing and ethnic stereotypes: Do college students form stereotypical perceptions of ethnic groups as a result of heavy television consumption?. The Howard Journal of Communications, 20(1), 95-110.
43. Lee, S.-J., Quigley, B. M., Nesler, M. S., Corbett, A. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1999). Development of a self-presentation tactics scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(4), 701-722.
44. Lee, S. H., Kim, D. H., Kim, S. H., Kim, S. L., Moon, H. Y., Park, J. W., Lee, S. H., Cho, H. A., Choi, Y. M., & Nam, Y. J. (2019). The Influence of sexual discrimination in online game, interpersonal competence on internalized shame in female college students. The Journal of Kyungpook Nursing Science, 23(1), 28-39.
45. Lee, Y.-J., & Sung, S.-Y. (2013). Relationships among mothers' sex-role awareness, their children's sex-role stereotype and leadership by gender. Korean Journal of Child Education and Care, 13(1), 113-132.
46. Mahalik, J. R., Locke, B. D., Ludlow, L. H., Diemer, M. A., Scott, R. P., Gottfried, M., & Freitas, G. (2003). Development of the conformity to masculine norms inventory. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(1), 3-25.
47. Malpas, J. (2009). On the non-autonomy of the virtual. Convergence, 15(2), 135-139.
48. McKernan, B. (2015). The meaning of a game: Stereotypes, video game commentary and color-blind racism. American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 3(2), 224-253.
49. Meng, W. J., Kim, H., Woo, J. H., Huh, Y. J. ... & Lee, J. H. (2008). Implications for the design of sexual harassment prevention system for online games. Proceedings of HCI Korea 2018, 470-475.
50. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. (2018). Evaluation of gender bias in game industry. Policy Report.
51. O'Neil, J. M. (1981). Patterns of gender role conflict and strain: Sexism and fear of femininity in men's lives. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60, 203-210
52. Park, S. J., & Meng, H. K. (2018, Feb 28). ‘Masculine’ brands are now targeting women. Hankookilbo, Retrieved from http://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/201802280449824686
53. Parrott, D. J., & Zeichner, A. (2008). Determinants of anger and physical aggression based on sexual orientation: An experimental examination of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(6), 891-901.
54. Postmes, T., Spears, R., Sakhel, K., & Groot, D. D. (2001). Social influence incomputer-mediated communication: The effects of anonymity on groupbehavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1243–1254.
55. Ridgeway, C. L., & Bourg, C. (2004). Gender as status: An expectation states theory approach. In A. H. Eagly, A. E. Beall, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The psychology of gender (2nd ed., pp. 217-241). New York, NY: Guilford.
56. Salter, A., & Blodgett, B. (2012). Hypermasculinity & dickwolves: The contentious role of women in the new gaming public. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(3), 401-416.
57. Seo, Y. N., Oh, P., & Kil, W. Y. (2021). Into the wolves’ den: an investigation of predictors of sexism in online games. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-15.
58. Sharpe, M. J., Heppner, P. P., & Dixon, W. A. (1995). Gender role conflict, instrumentality, expressiveness, and well-being in adult men. Sex Roles, 33(1-2), 1-18.
59. Son, H. Y. (2018, March 18). Game industry is rocking with the increase of female players. Joongangilbo. Retrieved from http://news.joins.com/article/22450399.
60. Song, D. H., Park, S. J., Yang. S. W., & Won, K. H. (2017). Gender differences and gender stereotype in play style among young Korean gamers. Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering. 21(1), 72-81.
61. Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., & Ferguson, M. J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57(1), 31-53.
62. Tang, W. Y., & Fox, J. (2016). Men's harassment behavior in online video games: Personality traits and game factors. Aggressive behavior, 42(6), 513-521.
63. Taylor, T. L. (2009). Play between worlds: Exploring online game culture. Cambridge, MA: Mit Press.
64. Wang, C.-C., & Wang, C.-H. (2008). Helping others in online games: Prosocial behavior in cyberspace. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(3), 344-346.
65. Whitley, B. E. (1983). Sex role orientation and self-esteem: A critical meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 44(4), 765.
66. Williams, D., Martins, N., Consalvo, M., & Ivory, J. D. (2009). The virtual census: Representations of gender, race and age in video games. New Media & Society, 11(5), 815-834.
67. Yao, M. Z., Mahood, C., and Linz, D. (2010). Sexual priming, gender stereotyping, and likehood to sexually harass: examining the cognitive effects of playing a sexually-explicit video game. Sex Roles 62, 77-88.
68. Yee, N. (2006). The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(3), 309-329.
69. Yee, N. (2008). Maps of digital desires: Exploring the topography of gender and play in online games. Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New perspectives on gender and gaming, 83-96.
70. Yoon, S. M. (2019, February 10). Sexual harrassment and hoarse in online games. MBC News. Retrieved 21/1/30 from http://imnews.imbc.com/replay/2019/nwdesk/article/5158391_24634.html?menuid=nwdesk.
71. You, G. H. (1994). Sex-role development in late childhood and adolescence : Relationships among sex-role stereotypes , sex-role ideology , sex-role identity , and self-esteem. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 15(1), 127-144.
72. You, J., & Ahn, H. (2020). Types of meta-perception of sexism among Korean young adults : Group differences in gender role conflict, distance from other gender, and support for gender discrimination issues. Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 26(4), 351-378.
73. Zhang, X., & Su, C. C. (2021). Transnational media consumption dissonance and ambivalent sexism: How American and Korean television drama consumption shapes Chinese audiences’ gender-role values. International Communication Gazette, 83(5), 428–450.

부록 I. 국내 참고문헌
1. 김혜숙 (1999). 집단범주에 대한 고정관념, 감정과 편견. <한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격>, 13권 1호, 1-33.
2. 곽삼근·조혜선·윤혜경 (2005). 생애주기별 성역할 발달 및 갈등. <한국여성학>, 21권 2호, 147-179.
3. 김미향·황보연 (2016, 5, 25). ‘일베놀이’하며 ‘여혐’ 배우는 10대들. <한겨레>. URL: http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/745322.html
4. 김혜래 (2006). 청소년의 성역할정체성 척도 개발에 관한 연구. 사회연구, 7, 135-152.
5. 맹욱재·김혁·우준희·허영진·이서영·최지원·이상욱·은진수·이경진·이준환 (2008). 온라인 게임내 성차별 실태 조사 및 제재 시스템 디자인 연구. HCI Korea 2018 학술대회 Proceeding, 470-475.
6. 박상준·맹하경 (2018, 2, 28). ‘마초’브랜드, 여성에게 구애하다. <한국일보>. URL: http://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/201802280449824686
7. 성윤희 (2020). 가부장적 가정환경과 대학생의 양가적 성차별주의의 관계: 성역할 고정관념을 통한 성별의 조절된 매개효과 검증. <인간발달연구>, 27권 4호, 1-19.
8. 손해용 (2018, 3, 18). 여성 게임 이용자 늘어나니...게임 관련 산업 ‘잘나가네’. <중앙일보>. URL: http://news.joins.com/article/22450399
9. 송두헌·박소진·양승원·양윤정·원교현 (2017). 한국 남녀 청년 게이머의 플레이 취향과 성차 및 성 고정관념. <한국정보통신학회논문지>, 21권 1호, 72-81.
10. 여성가족부 (2018). 게임문화산업 특정성별영향평가. 정책연구 보고서.
11. 유가효 (1994). 아동 후기에서 청소년기에 이르는 성역할발달에 관한 연구: 성역할 고정관념, 성역할 이데올로기, 성역할 정체감, 자아존중감간의 관계를 중심으로. <아동학회지>, 15권 1호, 127-144.
12. 유주연·안현의 (2020). 성인초기 남녀의 성차별 메타-인식에 대한 잠재프로파일 분석과 유형별 성역할갈등, 이성과의 거리감, 성차별 논쟁에 대한 지지도 차이. <한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제>, 26권 4호, 351-378.
13. 윤상문 (2019, 2, 10). 게임하다 “교태 좀 부려봐“...툭하면 성희롱에 욕설. <MBC 뉴스>. URL: http://imnews.imbc.com/replay/2019/nwdesk/article/5158391_24634.html?menuid=nwdesk
14. 이강진 (2020). 청소년 게임이용자에 대한 학술연구동향. <사회복지정책>, 47권 2호, 175-201.
15. 이성희·김다혜·김소희·김세림· 문혜윤·박주완·이수현·조현아· 최유미·남여정 (2019). 여자 대학생의 온라인 게임 내 성차별과 대인관계 유능성이 내면화된 수치심에 미치는 영향. <경북간호과학지>, 23권 1호, 28-39.
16. 이윤정·성소영 (2013). 유아의 성별에 따른 어머니 성역할 인식과 유아의 성역할 고정관념 및 리더십의 관계. <한국보육학회지>, 13권 1호, 113-132.
17. 이종화 (2008). 가정환경변인에 따른 여자청소년의 성역할정체성. <지역사회간호학회지>, 19권 3호, 450-458.
18. 전경란 (2007). 모바일 게임과 이동성의 성별화 - 여성의 이동전화 게임하기에 대한 탐색적 고찰. <한국방송학보>, 21권 6호, 536-573.
19. 정경아 (2001). 차별의 심리적 기제로서의 성 고정관념 연구: 농협 사내부부 여성해고사건을 중심으로. <한국심리학회지: 여성>, 6권 3호, 69-85.
20. 한국콘텐츠진흥원 (2017). 2017 게임이용자 실태조사 보고서.