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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 6

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 6, pp. 47-87
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Dec 2021
Received 08 Oct 2021 Accepted 01 Dec 2021 Revised 07 Dec 2021
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2021.65.6.002

언론인의 자율성, 소진, 그리고 오보 : 자원 보존 이론과 직무 요구-자원 모형의 적용
진보래**
**중부대학교 미디어커뮤니케이션학과 조교수 (bjin23@gmail.com)

Journalists’ Autonomy, Burnout, and Misinformation : A Job Demands-Resources Approach
Borae Jin**
**Assistant Professor, Department of Media & Communication, Joongbu University (bjin23@gmail.com)

초록

본 연구는 한국언론진흥재단의 2019 언론인 조사 자료(N = 1,956)를 활용하여 언론인들의 직무 자율성과 직무 소진(burnout), 그리고 오보 경험과 관련이 있는 언론사 환경 요소를 탐색하였다. 자원 보존 이론에 따르면, 사람들은 자신에게 가치 있고 유용한 자원을 보존하고자 노력하고, 그러한 자원을 잃을 위험이 닥치거나 실제 손실되는 것은 스트레스로 작용한다. 이와 유사하게 조직 맥락의 자원에 초점을 둔 직무 요구-자원 모형에서는 근로자들이 과도하거나 부적절한 직무 요구로 인해 스트레스를 경험하더라도, 조직 내 자원이 소진으로 이어지는 것을 막아줄 수도 있다고 말한다. 이러한 이론적 배경에서 언론인의 직업적 가치의 핵심이자 중요한 자원인 직무 자율성이 근무량, 광고홍보영업 업무, 개인과 조직의 이념적 성향 차이라는 직무 요구와 소속 언론사의 언론 역할 수행도라는 직무 자원과 어떠한 관계를 갖는지 살펴보았다. 그리고 이 네 종류의 언론사 환경 요인들(근무량, 광고홍보영업, 이념 차이, 언론 역할 수행)과 자율성은 직무 소진에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지도 조사하였고, 오보 경험 여부와의 관련성도 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 직무 자율성은 근무량과 광고홍보영업 업무가 많으면 낮아졌고, 언론사가 언론 역할을 충실히 수행하고 있으면 높아졌다. 직무 소진은 하위 요인별(정서적 고갈, 냉소주의, 효능감 감소)로 분석하였는데, 광고홍보영업 활동이 많아지는 것은 소진을 높이고, 언론사가 언론 역할을 충실히 수행하는 것은 소진을 낮추는 방향으로 세 요인 모두와 관련이 있었다. 업무량이 많아지면 정서적 고갈과 냉소주의가 높아졌으나, 업무 효능감은 오히려 높아졌다. 반면, 개인-조직 간 이념 차이는 정서적 고갈과만 유의미한 정적인 관련을 보였다. 직무 자율성은 소진의 세 하위 요인 모두에 부적인 영향력을 보였고, 언론사 환경 요인과 소진 간의 관계를 조절하는 역할도 하였다. 마지막으로, 업무량이 많고, 광고홍보영업 일도 많고, 언론사가 역할을 제대로 하지 못한다고 생각하고, 직무 효능감이 떨어지는 것은 오보 가능성을 높이는 것으로 나타났고, 흥미롭게도 직무 자율성이 높은 것은 오보 확률을 높였다. 본 연구는 조직 심리의 차원에서 언론인들의 자율성과 소진, 그리고 오보 가능성과 관련이 있는 중요한 직무 요구 및 자원이 무엇인지 밝혔다는 점에서 의의를 갖는다.

Abstract

In this study, I explored the features of news organizations related to journalists’ autonomy, burnout, and misinformation. People try to protect and acquire resources valuable to themselves physically and psychologically, thus in situations when they are losing or about to lose the resources, stress or burnout is likely to occur. Based on the conservation of resources theory and the job demands-resources model, four types of organizational characteristics that may influence journalists’ autonomy and burnout were considered: workload, ads-PR-sales work, ideological differences between journalists and news organizations, and the degree to which the news organization performs journalistic roles. I assumed that, for journalists, excessive workload, pressure on promotional work, and the organization’s ideology are job-demands factors or stressors, but that pride in the social roles of their news organization is a valuable resource. Thus, I hypothesized that the job-demands would reduce journalists’ autonomy and increase their burnout. In addition, how the four organizational factors along with autonomy and burnout are related to journalists’ misinformation was investigated. Using secondary data from journalists (N = 1,956) provided by the Korea Press Foundation, a series of regression analyses were conducted. As expected, the higher the work hours (workload) or the ads-PR-sales work, the lower the journalists’ job autonomy. Also, journalistic role perception increased autonomy, but ideological differences were not related to autonomy. Regarding burnout, as reliability and factor analyses indicated, the three components (emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced efficacy) of burnout were separately analyzed. Work hours significantly increased emotional exhaustion and cynicism, as expected, while interestingly, those who worked more time tended to report higher efficacy in their work. Ads-PR-sales work consistently increased the three factors of burnout. Ideological differences were positively related to emotional exhaustion but neither to cynicism or reduced efficacy. The perception of organization’s journalistic roles was negatively related to cynicism and reduced efficacy but not related to emotional exhaustion. Journalists’ job autonomy was negatively related to the three symptoms of burnout, taking the four organizational features into account. Also, autonomy moderated the relationships between ideological differences and cynicism and between journalistic role perception and reduced efficacy. Finally, those journalists who admitted that they had made incorrect reports within the year tended to work more, including ads-PR-sales work, perceive journalistic roles poorly, and suffer from the reduction of efficacy. With these factors considered, autonomy increased the odds ratio of having incorrect reports. This study showed the consistent negative impact of ads-PR-sales work, while the possibility of pride in organization as valuable workplace resource for journalists. These results generally support the job demands-resources model and the conservation of resources theory and provide implications for journalism studies and practice.


KeywordsJournalists, Autonomy, Burnout, Misinformation, Job Demands-Resources Model
키워드: 기자, 직무 요구-자원 모형, 자율성, 소진, 오보

Acknowledgments

This article is based on the paper presented at the 6th Annual Korea Press Foundation Conference Using the KPF Media Statistics Data. (이 논문은 2021년 11월 27일 개최되었던 한국언론진흥재단 주최 ‘제6회 언론 통계 자료 활용 학술대회’에서 발표한 논문을 수정 및 보완한 것이다.)


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부록
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