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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65 , No. 5

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 65, No. 5, pp. 89-126
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Oct 2021
Received 13 Aug 2021 Accepted 28 Sep 2021 Revised 07 Oct 2021

중학생의 또래관계가 스마트폰 의존도에 미치는 영향과 사회적 위축의 매개효과 : 스마트폰의 사회적 이용에 따른 다집단 분석
이혜선** ; 호규현 ; 권지현 ; 나은영***
**서강대학교 신문방송학과 박사과정 (
서강대학교 신문방송학과 석사과정
서강대학교 신문방송학과 석사과정
***서강대학교 지식융합미디어학부 교수 (

The effects of middle school students' peer relationships on smartphone dependence and mediation of social withdrawal : Multi-group analysis based on the social use of smartphone
Hye-Sun Lee** ; Gyuhyun Ho ; Jihyun Kwon ; Eun-Yeong Na***
**Ph. D. Student, Department of Mass Communications, Sogang University (
Master’s Student, Department of Mass Communications, Sogang University
Master’s Student, Department of Mass Communications, Sogang University
***Professor, School of Media, Arts, and Science, Sogang University, corresponding author (


이 연구는 초기 청소년인 중학생에게 준거집단의 역할을 하는 또래 친구에 주목하여 중학생의 긍정적·부정적 또래관계가 스마트폰 의존도의 하위요인에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 더 나아가, 사회적 이용에 따라 고·저 집단으로 분류한 뒤 집단 간 차이를 분석하고 사회적 위축의 매개효과를 함께 분석하였다. 한국청소년정책연구원의 한국아동·청소년패널조사(Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey) 2018 중1 패널 데이터 2차년도 자료를 사용하였고, 2,371명의 답변을 사용하여 구조방정식 모형을 활용한 다집단 분석을 실시하였다. 연구결과, 중학생의 긍정적 또래관계는 스마트폰 의존도의 하위요인 가운데 금단을 낮추고, 부정적 또래관계는 금단과 내성 모두를 증가시키는 경향을 보였으나 금단을 향한 효과크기가 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 사회적 위축은 부정적 또래관계에 의해 증가하고 긍정적 또래관계에 의해 감소하지만, 부정적 또래관계가 상대적으로 더 큰 영향력을 발휘하였다. 중학생이 경험하는 사회적 위축으로 인해 스마트폰 의존도의 하위요인 금단과 내성 모두 증가하지만 내성을 향한 영향력이 상대적으로 더 강하게 나타났다. 사회적 이용에 따라 고·저 집단으로 분류한 다집단 분석 결과, 중학생의 긍정적 또래관계가 금단에 미치는 영향은 사회적 이용 수준이 높은 집단에서만 유의미하였다. 반면, 부정적 또래관계가 사회적 위축과 금단에 미치는 영향은 사회적 이용 수준이 낮은 집단에서 더 강하게 나타났다. 사회적 위축의 매개효과 분석 결과, 부정적 또래관계가 내성과 금단에 미치는 영향에 관해서는 모든 집단이 유의미하였다. 하지만 긍정적 또래관계가 금단에 미치는 영향에 관한 사회적 위축의 매개효과는 사회적 이용 수준이 낮은 집단에서만 유의미하지 않았다. 즉, 사회적 이용 수준이 높은 집단에서는 스마트폰 의존도 하위요인을 향한 긍정적 또래관계의 영향력이 강화되고 부정적 또래관계의 영향력은 완화되었다. 분석 결과를 종합하여, 청소년 대상 스마트폰 교육 및 관련 미디어교육 프로그램에서 미디어를 이용한 긍정적인 상호작용과 또래관계 경험을 지원해야 할 필요성을 논의하였다.


Peer relationships and smartphone dependence are two essential features for middle school students. Peer relationships can be protective factors for smartphone dependence because adolescents can choose smartphone usage activities when their need for interpersonal relationships is not fulfilled. Then, how are the effects different for positive and negative peer relationships to smartphone dependency? Are positive and negative peer relationships' effects on the sub-factors of smartphone dependency different? Further, what mediates and which moderator factors differentiate the effects of peer relationships on smartphone dependency's sub-factors? This study investigated the effects of middle school students' positive and negative peer relationships on smartphone dependency (tolerance and withdrawal) with the mediation of social withdrawal. We also analyzed the differences between high and low social use groups. We used the structural equation model analysis and analyzed data from 2,371 respondents in the 2018 Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey' 2nd-year panel data provided by the Korea Youth Policy Institute. The result of the study indicates that middle school students' positive peer relationships lowered withdrawal. Negative peer relationships tended to increase both withdrawal and tolerance. The effect size of negative peer relationships toward withdrawal was substantial. Social withdrawal was increased by negative peer relationships and decreased by positive peer relationships, but negative peer relationships had a stronger effect on social withdrawal. Social withdrawal experienced by middle school students increased both withdrawal and tolerance sub-factors of smartphone dependence, but social withdrawal influenced tolerance relatively more. Multi-group analysis showed that positive peer relationships on the withdrawal of smartphone dependence were significant only in the group with a high level of social use. The effects of negative peer relationships on social withdrawal and smartphone dependence withdrawal were stronger in the group with a low level of social use. In the group with a high level of social use, the influence of positive peer relationships strengthened toward the sub-factors of smartphone dependence, while that of negative peer relationships was alleviated. Social withdrawal is a mediating factor between peer relationships and tolerance regardless of positive and negative peer relationships or a level of social use. However, social withdrawal is consistently a mediator between peer relationships and tolerance because social withdrawal does not affect the withdrawal of smartphone dependency in a low level of social use group. The results of this study suggest two strategies for media literacy programs for adolescents. First, it is necessary to encourage positive interaction and peer relationship experiences using smartphones in media literacy programs. Second, forced social use to decrease smartphone dependency may cause unintended adverse effects on adolescents who experience social withdrawal.

Keywordssmartphone dependence, adolescent, peer relationship, social withdrawal, social use
키워드: 스마트폰 의존도, 청소년, 또래관계, 사회적 위축, 사회적 이용


This study was presented in the Media Literacy Research Group Session at the Spring Conference of the Korean Society for Journalism and Communication Studies in 2021. Thanks to the helpful advices of panelists and discussants, this paper has been improved (이 연구는 2021년 한국언론학회 봄철 정기학술대회 미디어교육연구회 세션에서 발표되었습니다. 발전된 논문이 될 수 있도록 조언해주신 사회자, 토론자분들과 심사위원분들께 감사드립니다).

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