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The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 68 , No. 2

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 67, No. 5, pp. 101-137
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Oct 2023
Received 13 Apr 2023 Accepted 22 Sep 2023 Revised 02 Oct 2023
https://doi.org/10.20879/kjjcs.2023.67.5.003

한국 사회의 낙인찍기와 낙인찍힘에 대한 탐색 : 국내 온라인 뉴스에 사용된 낙인 단어분석을 중심으로
안순태** ; 이하나***
**이화여자대학교 커뮤니케이션미디어학부 교수 (soontae@ewha.ac.kr)
***이화여자대학교 연령통합고령사회연구소 연구교수 (hannah21@ewha.ac.kr)

Exploring the Stigmatization and Being Stigmatized in Korean Society : Analysis of Keywords Used in Korean Online News Articles
Soontae An** ; Hannah Lee***
**Professor, Ewha Womans University, first author (soontae@ewha.ac.kr)
***Research Professor, Ewha Institute for Age Integration Research, corresponding author (hannah21@ewha.ac.kr)
Funding Information ▼

초록

본 연구의 목적은 팬데믹 기간 중 드러난 한국 사회의 낙인 문제를 커뮤니케이션학 관점에서 탐색하는 것이다. 이를 위해 본 연구는 낙인을 관찰할 수 있는 대상으로 뉴스 미디어를 주목하고, “낙인”이라는 단어가 기사에서 어떻게 사용되고 있는지 조사했다. 구체적으로, 본 연구는 “낙인”이라는 단어가 언급된 기사의 주제, 기사의 초점, 낙인찍힘의 대상과 낙인찍기의 주체 등을 파악함으로써, 한국 사회에서 사회적으로 배제되거나 주변화되는 대상은 무엇인지 살펴보았다. 전국 11개 종합일간지를 분석 대상으로 선정했으며, 텍스트 분석과 내용분석을 혼합하여 자료를 분석했다. 총 7,729건의 기사를 분석한 결과, 한국의 주요 언론에서 낙인 단어는 사회와 정치 분야의 뉴스에서 자주 언급되었으며, 낙인 문제 혹은 낙인화 대상을 주요 주제로 다루기보다 낙인 단어가 단순 언급되는 경우가 많았다. 낙인찍히는 대상은 ‘개인’인 경우가 절반가량으로 가장 큰 비율을 차지했다. 낙인찍는 주체는 기자(작성자)가 아닌 기사에 등장한 인용문인 경우가 많았으며, 주로 교수, 정부 관계자, 정치인, 법조인과 같은 인용문으로부터 낙인이라는 단어와 낙인화 대상이 언급되었다. 이러한 결과를 토대로 집단주의적 문화 특성을 가진 한국 사회에서는 나와 다른 집단을 구분하는 이분화된 선긋기와 강한 범주화를 통한 낙인화 현상이 사회 곳곳에서 빈번히 나타나고 있음을 관찰할 수 있었다. 무엇보다 낙인 용어가 사용된 방식을 살펴보았을 때, 낙인화 대상을 주제로 다룬 기사보다 본문에 낙인이 단순 언급된 기사의 비율이 더 높았다. 즉, 우리 사회의 낙인 문제를 개선해야 한다는 취지의 기사보다 언론이 “낙인” 용어를 부수적으로 단순 언급하는 경우가 많아 낙인의 사소화(trivialization) 현상이 관찰되었다. 이러한 결과를 토대로 본 연구는 학술적 가치와 실무적 방향성을 논하였다.

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has made many previously concealed instances of prejudice and stigma visible in the society. Since they are a major contributing factor to societal inequities and inequality, identifying these stigmas is crucial to creating efficient solutions to eliminate them. This study aims to focus on the problem of social stigma during COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the literature on stigma highlights the significant role played by sociocultural, media, and political power in categorizing and discriminating against stigmatized individuals. The term stigma implies that stigmatized objects should be separated, rejected, and excluded. Therefore, this study explores the use of the term stigma in Korean society’s discussions of various social issues, with a focus on news media as a source of stigma communication. Specifically, this study investigated how the term stigma was used in news articles, examining the topic of the articles in which the term stigma was mentioned, the target of stigmatization, who the subjects of the stigmatizing were, and whether the article primarily focused on stigma or mentioned it incidentally. We collected news data through Big Kinds, a big data service that archives all news articles reported in Korea, and analyzed 7,729 news articles from 11 major national newspapers in Korea, reported on the keyword “stigma” from January 1, 2020, to October 8, 2022, using a mixed method of text analysis and content analysis. The results of this study indicate that the term stigma was frequently used in news articles related to social and political issues and it was often used incidentally rather than as the main topic of discussion. This observation implies that the media may potentially misapply or excessively employ the term "stigma" rather than directing their efforts towards addressing and challenging the problem of stigmatization within the society. Additionally, the study revealed that a significant portion of those subjected to stigmatization were targeted, while those engaging in stigmatizing behavior were frequently cited in various publications, including but not limited to professors, government officials, legislators, and lawyers. This discovery demonstrates the prevalence of stigmatization through the use of rigid binary categorization in Korean society, which is characterized by its emphasis on group-oriented culture. The act of downplaying or belittling stigma within news media can yield adverse repercussions for both persons and populations who are already marginalized. Individuals in this population frequently encounter barriers that impede their ability to obtain medical care and achieve a satisfactory standard of living. The act of journalists and media outlets diminishing stigmatized problems serves to perpetuate detrimental preconceptions and exacerbate instances of prejudice and inequity. Therefore, it is crucial for news publications to use the term stigma appropriately because trivializing it only adds more barriers and diminishes the seriousness of the challenges faced by truly stigmatized people. In conclusion, this study holds academic significance as it delves into the problem of stigmatization that manifests across various domains, including social, political, economic, and cultural spheres. Additionally, it highlights practical avenues for the media to have a role in mitigating stigmatization.


KeywordsStigma, Collectivism, Group Categorization, News Media, Trivialization of Stigma
키워드: 사회적 낙인, 집단주의, 집단범주화, 뉴스 미디어, 낙인의 사소화

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF-2022S1A5A2A01047861)(본 연구는 한국연구재단 지원을 받아 수행되었음(NRF-2022S1A5A2A01047861)).


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