Current issue

The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 68 , No. 3

[ Article ]
Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies - Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 140-184
Abbreviation: KSJCS
ISSN: 2586-7369 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Apr 2024
Received 01 Dec 2023 Revised 18 Mar 2024 Accepted 27 Mar 2024

라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고는 어떤 이유로 광고인가? : 2030 소비자 대상 혼합 연구 방법의 적용
이혜선** ; 권예지 ; 장시연 ; 이희준***
**서강대학교 미디어융합연구소 선임연구원 (
한국방송광고진흥공사 선임연구위원
한국외국어대학교 미디어커뮤니케이션연구소 미디어데이터랩 연구원
***대구가톨릭대학교 미디어영상광고홍보학부 조교수 (

Do Live Commerce, Influencer Marketing, and Metaverse Advertising Correspond to Advertising? : Application of Mixed Research Methods Targeting Consumers in Their 20s and 30s
Hye-Sun Lee** ; Yeji Kwon ; Siyeon Jang ; Heejun Lee***
**Senior Researcher, Media Convergence Research Institute, Sogang University, first author (
Senior Research Fellow, Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation
Researcher, Media and Communications Research Institute, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
***Assistant Professor, Department of Advertising & PR, Daegu Catholic University, corresponding author (


본 연구는 디지털 전환 시대에 새로이 등장한 라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고에 주목하여, 각 유형이 광고로 인식되는 이유를 소비자의 인식 중심으로 살펴보았다. 특히 광고를 향한 기존 논의를 라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고로 확장하고, 소비자로부터 수집한 실증 자료를 해당 논의로 수렴시키는 탐색적 연구를 전개해보고자 했다. 라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고를 광고로 인식하게 하는 특징을 파악하기 위해, 삼각 검증법(triangulation)으로 2030 소비자 대상 초점 집단 토론과 설문조사를 진행하였다. 특히 설문조사에는 각 유형을 광고로 생각하는 이유에 관한 개방형 문항을 배치하여, 바이그램 기반 워크트랩 알고리즘으로 주요 단어를 파악한 뒤 주제를 도출하였다. 분석 결과, 라이브커머스를 광고로 인식하게 하는 특징은 ‘제품 설명 및 판매’, ‘홈쇼핑과 비슷한 제품소개’, ‘판매 제품 관련 다양한 정보 제공’, ‘실시간 소통을 통한 설득’, ‘구매 유도’였다. 인플루언서 마케팅은 ‘유명인을 통한 제품 노출 및 홍보’, ‘인플루언서가 사용했다는 영향력’, ‘기존 광고와 유사한 과정 혹은 결과’로 인해 광고로 인식되었고, 메타버스 광고를 광고로 인식하게 하는 특징은 ‘현실 속 제품에 대한 정보 제공’, ‘가상공간 속 홍보’, ‘가상공간의 광고도 광고’, ‘광고는 환경과 무관함’이었다. 이 연구는 광고에 관한 이론적 논의를 라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고라는 새로운 유형으로 확장하고, 각 유형을 광고로 인식하도록 하는 특징을 소비자로부터 수집한 자료에서 도출하였다는 의의를 지닌다.


Advertising constantly evolves due to developments in information technologies, leading to the appearance of new advertising types. Relatively few studies have focused on the expanding discussion about advertising into new types of advertising, although the scope of advertising has important influences in both academic and practical fields. This study explored consumer perceptions focused on live-commerce, influencer marketing, and metaverse advertising. The previous studies suggest five essential elements—paid, nonpersonal, mass-media, identified sponsor, and persuade or influence—to determine whether an activity qualifies as advertising. Until recently, advertising research has developed these elements through theoretical discussions. If the reasons for perceiving three things as advertising apply to the five essential elements, these new types can also contribute to the ongoing discussion about advertising. By drawing from the focus group discussions on a small sample and surveys with open-ended questions conducted, we aimed to explore why individuals perceive these three types as advertising. In the first step of data analysis, we applied text mining to the data collected through surveys with open-ended questions. This study then analyzed the responses from focus group discussions to complement the survey responses, a quantitative data collection method. The analysis results of the survey and focus group discussions converged to confirm why participants perceived three new types of advertising, live commerce, influencer marketing, and metaverse advertising, as advertising. The five reasons (product explanation/sales, the similar product explanation with home shopping, offering information about the selling product, persuasion through real-time communication, and inducing purchase) help us comprehend live-commerce as advertising. The three reasons relevant to influencer marketing (product exposure and promotion by a celebrity, the influence by 'influencer using,' and the similar process/results with existing advertising), and the four reasons relevant to metaverse advertising (information about the product in real-world, the promotion in the metaverse, metaverse 'advertising' is also advertising, and environments do not limit the advertising) were also found. We could categorize these results based on product exposure and purchase inducement. For the participants, the new type of advertising was perceived when they came across products and felt compelled to buy, whether through live-commerce, influencer marketing, or metaverse advertising. The product exposure operates independently of each property, whereas the intrinsic characteristics of novel advertising types relate to purchase inducement. For instance, the participants point out that whatever corresponds to advertising if they expose a product and provide information about it. They also highlight that the new advertising types induce purchase from the inherent characteristics of each type—real-time communication with the host, influencer, and metaverse. This study provides theoretical implications for literature exploring advertising expansion into live commerce, influencer marketing, and metaverse advertising.

KeywordsLive-Commerce, Influencer Marketing, Metaverse Advertising, Walktrap Algorithm, Digital Advertising
키워드: 라이브커머스, 인플루언서 마케팅, 메타버스 광고, 워크트랩 알고리즘, 디지털 광고


Data were collected by the research project ‘Examining the new areas of advertising in the digital transformation age’ from Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation. The authors acknowledge the three reviewers for their advice in making this article more advanced(본 연구에 사용된 자료는 2022년 한국방송광고진흥공사의 연구과제 ‘디지털 트랜스포메이션 시대 광고의 새로운 영역 검토 방안’을 통해 수집하였습니다. 발전된 논문이 될 수 있도록 조언해 주신 심사위원분들에게 감사드립니다).

1. Ahn, S. J., Kim, J., & Kim, J. (2022). The bifold triadic relationships framework: A theoretical primer for advertising research in the metaverse. Journal of Advertising, 51(5), 592-607.
2. American Marketing Association (1948). Report of the definitions committee. Journal of Marketing, 13(2), 202-217.
3. Balasubramanian, S. K. (1994). Beyond advertising and publicity: Hybrid messages and public policy issues. Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 29-46.
4. Ball, M. (2022). The metaverse: and how it will revolutionize everything. New York: Liveright Publishing.
5. Barrera, K. G., & Shah, D. (2023). Marketing in the Metaverse: Conceptual understanding, framework, and research agenda. Journal of Business Research, 155, 113420.
6. Bawack, R. E., Bonhoure, E., Kamdjoug, J. R. K., & Giannakis, M. (2023). How social media live streams affect online buyers: A uses and gratifications perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 70, 102621.
7. Brinker, S., & Riemersman, F. (2022). State of martech 2022. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
8. Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113.
9. Cai, J., & Wohn, D. Y. (2019). Live streaming commerce: Uses and gratifications approach to understanding consumers’ motivations. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
10. Campbell, C., & Farrell, J. R. (2020). More than meets the eye: The functional components underlying influencer marketing. Business Horizons, 63(4), 469-479.
11. Carroll, A., Barnes, S. J., Scornavacca, E., & Fletcher, K. (2007). Consumer perceptions and attitudes towards SMS advertising: recent evidence from New Zealand. International Journal of Advertising, 26(1), 79-98.
12. Cheong, S. H. (2005). The study on type analysis of advertising cognition in advertising consumers. The Korean Journal of Advertising, 16(1), 251-273.
정성호 (2005). 광고소비자의 광고인식에 대한 유형 분석에 관한 연구. <광고학연구>, 16권 1호, 251-273.
13. Cox, K. K., Higginbotham, J. B., & Burton, J. (1976). Applications of focus group interviews in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 40(1), 77-80.
14. DMC Media (2021, December 31). Survey on the usage of media content from influencers in 2020. (DMC Report, SRTS20200005). Retrieved 4/15/24 from
DMC 미디어 (2021, 12, 31). 2020 인플루언서 콘텐츠 이용 행태 조사. (DMC Report, SRTS20200005).
15. Dwivedi, Y. K., Hughes, L., Wang, Y., Alalwan, A. A., Ahn, S. J., Balakrishnan, J., ... & Wirtz, J. (2023). Metaverse marketing: How the metaverse will shape the future of consumer research and practice. Psychology & Marketing, 40(4), 750-776.
16. Elliott, M. T., & Speck, P. S. (1998). Consumer perceptions of advertising clutter and its impact across various media. Journal of Advertising Research, 38(1), 29-30.
17. Embrain (2021). Survey on perceptions of SNS use and influencer impact. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
엠브레인 (2021). 2021 SNS 이용 및 인플루언서 영향력 관련 인식 조사.
18. Gabler, W. G. (1978). The evolution of american advertising in the nineteenth century. Journal of Popular Culture, 11(4), 763.
19. Greene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., & Graham, W. F. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(3), 255-274.
20. Harms, B., Bijmolt, T. H., & Hoekstra, J. C. (2019). You don’t fool me! Consumer perceptions of digital native advertising and banner advertising. Journal of Media Business Studies, 16(4), 275-294.
21. Harrison, R. L., & Reilly, T. M. (2011). Mixed methods designs in marketing research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 14(1), 7-26.
22. Jackson, K. M., & Trochim, W. M. (2002). Concept mapping as an alternative approach for the analysis of open-ended survey responses. Organizational Research Methods, 5(4), 307-336.
23. Kang, S., & Lee, H. (2021). New type of advertising promotion plan for innovative growth of media and advertising industry. Seoul: Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation.
강신규·이해수 (2021). <미디어·광고산업 혁신성장을 위한 신유형광고 진흥방안>. 서울: 한국방송광고진흥공사.
24. Kerr, G., & Richards, J. (2021). Redefining advertising in research and practice. International Journal of Advertising, 40(2), 175-198.
25. Kim, B. (2005). A study of perception of consumers to Product PLacement (PPL) in television programs. The Korean Journal of Advertising, 16(2), 233-261.
김봉현 (2005). TV프로그램 내 간접광고로서의 PPL 운용 및 규제에 관한 소비자 인식조사연구. <광고학연구>, 16권 2호, 233-261.
26. Kim, B. (2017). A discussion of the potential and elaboration of qualitative research in advertising in the digital media context: From the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives. Advertising Research, 115, 49-119.
김봉현 (2017). 우리는 광고를 어떻게 연구할 것인가?: 디지털 미디어 환경 속에서 질적 연구가 갖는 함의와 확장성에 관한 논의. <광고연구>, 115호, 49-119.
27. Kim, B. H. (2013). New definitions and ranges on advertising: Mixed methods approach. The Korean Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 225-254.
김병희 (2013). 광고의 새로운 정의와 범위: 혼합연구방법의 적용. <광고학연구>, 24권 2호, 225-254.
28. Kim, B. H. (2022). A qualitative research to explore a new value chain model in the advertising industry. The Korean Journal of Advertising, 33(7), 39-69.
김병희 (2022). 광고산업의 가치사슬 모델을 새롭게 정립하기 위한 질적 연구. <광고학연구>, 33권 7호, 39-69.
29. Kim, B. H., & Han, S. (2012). An inquiry for re-definition of the new concept on advertising. Advertising Research, 95, 248-282.
김병희·한상필 (2012). 광고의 새로운 개념 재정립을 위한 시론. <광고연구>, 95호, 248-282.
30. Kim, B. H., Sung, Y., Lee, H. B., Yang, S., & Kim, J. H. The constructs of advertising soundness and verification of advertising effects. Advertising Research, 132, 39-68.
김병희·성윤택·이희복·양승광·김지혜 (2022). 광고 건전성의 구성요인과 광고 효과의 검증. <광고연구>, 132호, 39-68.
31. Kim, J., Shinaprayoon, T., & Ahn, S. J. (2022). Virtual tours encourage intentions to travel and willingness to pay via spatial presence, enjoyment, and destination image. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 43(1), 90-105.
32. Korea Advertising Society. (1994). Advertising glossary. Seoul: Author.
한국광고학회 (1994). <광고용어집>. 서울: 한국광고학회.
33. Kwon, Y., & Lee, H. (2022). Ways for review new areas of advertising to the era of digital transformation. Seoul: Korea Broadcast Advertising Corporation.
권예지·이희준 (2022). <디지털 트랜스포메이션 시대 광고의 새로운 영역 검토 방안>. 서울: 한국방송광고진흥공사.
34. Laird, P. W. (1993). The business of progress: The transformation of American advertising, 1870-1920. Business and Economic History, 22(1), 13-18.
35. Larkin, E. F. (1979). Consumer perceptions of the media and their advertising content. Journal of Advertising, 8(2), 5-7.
36. Lee, E. (2019, December 12). 2020 influencer business landscape. KIIA. Retrieved 4/15/24 from인플루언서-비즈니스-랜드스케이프
이은혜 (2019, 12, 12). 2020 인플루언서 비즈니스 랜드스케이프. <KIIA>.
37. Lee, H. B., & Cha, Y. R. (2012). Audience awareness of virtual advertising and product placement. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 12(5), 91-102.
이희복·차영란 (2012). 가상광고와 간접광고에 대한 수용자 인식. <한국콘텐츠학회논문지>, 12권 5호, 91-102.
38. LUMA Partners (2022a). Display LUMAscape. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
39. LUMA Partners (2022b). Out of home LUMAscape. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
40. Lunt, P., & Livingstone, S. (1996). Rethinking the focus group in media and communications research. Journal of Communication, 46(2), 79-98.
41. Martínez-López, F. J., Anaya-Sánchez, R., Fernández Giordano, M., & Lopez-Lopez, D. (2020). Behind influencer marketing: Key marketing decisions and their effects on followers’ responses. Journal of Marketing Management, 36(7-8), 579-607.
42. Moon, C. S. (2023). A study on the perception as an advertising platform viewed through the use behavior of metaverse users. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 23(3), 493-508.
문철수 (2023). 메타버스 이용자의 이용행태를 통해 본 광고 플랫폼으로서의 인식에 관한 연구. <한국콘텐츠학회논문지>, 23권 3호, 493-508.
43. Papyrina, V. (2015). Men and women watching and reading: Gender and information processing opportunity effects in advertising. Journal of Marketing Communications, 21(2), 125-143.
44. Park, H. J., & Lin, L. M. (2020). The effects of match-ups on the consumer attitudes toward internet celebrities and their live streaming contents in the context of product endorsement. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 52, 101934.
45. Pons, P., & Latapy, M. (2005). Computing communities in large networks using random walks. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
46. Popping, R. (2015). Analyzing open-ended questions by means of text analysis procedures. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 128(1), 23-39.
47. Richards, J. I., & Curran, C. M. (2002). Oracles on “advertising”: Searching for a definition. Journal of Advertising, 31(2), 63-77.
48. Seoul Metropolitan Government (2022, April 6). Seoul City announces first survey of real-time broadcast sales usage… 6 out of 10 people have used it. Retrieved 4/15/24 from
서울특별시청 (2022, 4, 6). 서울시, 실시간 방송 판매 이용실태조사 첫 발표…10명 중 6명 이용 경험.
49. Shih, I. T., Silalahi, A. D. K., & Eunike, I. J. (2023). Engaging audiences in real-time: The nexus of socio-technical systems and trust transfer in live streaming e-commerce. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 13, 100363.
50. Smith, N. R., Zivich, P. N., Frerichs, L. M., Moody, J., & Aiello, A. E. (2020). A guide for choosing community detection algorithms in social network studies: The question alignment approach. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 59(4), 597-605.
51. Taylor, C. R. (2009). The six principles of digital advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 28(3), 411-418.
52. Vrontis, D., Makrides, A., Christofi, M., & Thrassou, A. (2021). Social media influencer marketing: A systematic review, integrative framework and future research agenda. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(4), 617-644.
53. Wongkitrungrueng, A., & Assarut, N. (2020). The role of live streaming in building consumer trust and engagement with social commerce sellers. Journal of Business Research, 117, 543-556.
54. Wongkitrungrueng, A., Dehouche, N., & Assarut, N. (2020). Live streaming commerce from the sellers’ perspective: implications for online relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 36(5-6), 488-518.
55. Yoon, Y., Kim, B. H., & Park, W.-K. (2020). Analysis of the direction of the revision of the law on non-commercial public service advertising. Advertising Research, 125, 142-177.
윤영태·김병희·박원기 (2020). 비상업적 공익광고에 관한 법률 개정의 방향성 분석. <광고연구>, 125호, 142-177.